Assignment 1 (100 points).


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cps721: Assignment 1 (100 points).

You have to work in groups of TWO, or THREE, you cannot work alone. You can discuss
this assignment only with your CPS721 group partners or with the CPS721 instructor. By
submitting this assignment you acknowledge that you read and understood the course Policy
on Collaboration in homework assignments stated in the CPS721 course management form.
1 (40 points). This problem is designed to get you started in Prolog. Use only named variables.
Almost all information that is currently available on the WWW is intended exclusively for humans,
and there are few programs that can do limited processing of this information. The long-term goal of the
Semantic Web project is to transform the current World Wide Web so that the information and services
are in a machine-processable form. The Semantic Web will create an environment where software agents
(sometimes, these computer programs are called “soft-bots” or services) can autonomously perform sophisticated tasks and help humans find, understand, integrate, and use information. The key distinguishing
feature of the Semantic Web will be representation of information in specialized formats and logical rules
for reasoning about information. In this assignment, you are asked to design a simple prototype of an
on-line store that keeps information about electronic equipment in a specified format, so that a “soft-bot”
can automatically query store’s KB to make a purchase.
More specifically, you have to do the following. Make up a simple knowledge base (KB) of atomic
sentences about products available for purchase (not necessarily real ones), manufacturers and prices,
using the following predicates.
inStore(ItemID,ProductType,Quantity) – Quantity of a ProductType (tablet, laptop, printer, etc)
with an unique ItemID (it can be UPC, or any other unique item identifier) is available in
the store, where Quantity is the number of distinct copies of the product that remain in stock.
manufacturer(ItemID,Company,Year) – ItemID has been manufactured by Company in Year.
price(ItemID,P) – the cost of ItemID is P.
We assume that all prices are represented as integers. Make up about 10-15 atomic statements for each
predicate (they do not need to be real ones). Try to design your facts in a way that most of your queries
will retrieve information successfully from your knowledge base. Examples:
Now pose the following queries to Prolog using these predicates only, and obtain Prolog’s answers. You
cannot introduce any other predicates to formulate queries. In particular, you cannot use any predicates
from Prolog’s standard library.
1. Is there an item (apart from flash drives) such that the store has more than 4 copies of this item?
Note that X < Y (and X Y ) is Prolog’s less than (greater than, respectively) predicate:
X < Y succeeds if the number X is less than the number Y . Hint: When formulating in Prolog a
question like “Is there an item such and such”, check whether quantity of this item is greater than 0.
2. Is there an Acer laptop manufactured in 2018 or later with the price less than 500?
3. Is there a Asus phone that is less expensive than an Apple phone?
4. Does the store carry any item manufactured by more than one company? (Usually, each item is
manufactured by one company only; so, we would expect the answer “No” to this query.)
5. What are the prices of all items manufactured by Apple available in the store? List all prices (by
clicking “more” in a GUI version, or by using the “;” command in a command-line version).
6. Does the store have distinct products manufactured by the same company?
7. What is the total price of a purchase that includes an Acer laptop and a Canon printer? If your KB
includes several different combinations of these products, then use “;” (or “more” button in GUI) to
retrive all answers.
8. Out of those printers which are not manufactured by HP, are there printers with the same price
manufactured by distinct companies?
9. Which company is the only one that manufactured more than 2 distinct product types?
10. Find the least expensive Asus phone in the store. (Note that KB can include arbitrary many items.)
Handing in solutions: (a) An electronic copy of your program with all atomic statements (the name of this
file must be; (b) An electronic copy of your session with Prolog that shows clearly the queries
you submitted to Prolog, and the answers that were returned (the name of this file must be store.txt);
Figure 1: Incoming lanes are green, outbound – are blue. Traffic light is visible outside the red square.
2 (35 points). This problem will exercise what you have learned about rules in Prolog, by having
you implement a small knowledge base with both atomic statements and logical rules.
The driverless car projects involve developing technology for autonomous cars. All autonomous vehicles have to interact with both manned and unmanned vehicle traffic in an urban environment. In addition, robotics vehicles are judged also on their ability to comply with local highway traffic rules. See and driverless car
for video and additional information. The long term goal of this effort is an exciting task of developing
cars that drive themselves on highways and in cities.
In this question, you are asked to express in Prolog a few simple traffic rules that a driver-less car
might need to follow in a city. For simplicity, let us consider an intersection with a single 4-directional
traffic light located at the point (0,0) and one lane only in each direction. Let x-axis go from West to
East and separate eastward and westward lanes, and y-axis go from South to North on the border between
northward and southward lanes. Assume that each lane has width 20 units, and the length of each lane is
200 units (i.e., we disregard everything that is more than 200 units away from the traffic light). As usual
in North America, according to right-hand traffic regulation, all traffic is required to keep to the right side
of the road. We consider a static scene only because taking motion into account would require knowledge
that is not tested by this assignment.
You have to use the following predicates; you are not allowed to introduce your own predicates. The
predicate at(Car,X,Y) holds if Car is located at the point (X; Y ). The predicate light(State,X,Y)
means that a traffic light is in S tate (one of: green, red, yellow) when you look at the light from the
location (X; Y ). For simplicity, we assume that the traffic light is not visible at the intersection itself, i.e., we never need to define its state for points (X; Y ) inside the quadrant 20 < X < 20 and
20 < Y < 20. The predicate distance(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,D) is true if D is the Euclidean distance between the points (X1; Y 1) and (X2; Y 2). The predicate canDriveStraight(Car,X,Y)
holds if Car can keep driving straight. Finally, the predicate canTurnRight(Car,X,Y) (the predicate canTurnLeft(Car,X,Y), respectively) means that Car can turn right (turn left, respectively)
from the location (X; Y ). You are asked to express a few Ontario traffic laws using these predicates and
other auxiliary predicates introduced below. Your task is to implement in Prolog the following English
specifications (in the order shown).
? Write one rule that implements the predicate distance(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,D).
? Write 4 rules implementing directions of travel. Use the following predicates: eastbound(X,Y),
southbound(X,Y), northbound(X,Y), westbound(X,Y). For example, the predicate
eastbound(X,Y) holds if a point (X; Y ) is on the incoming lane from which traffic goes from
West to East. In the same vein, the predicate southbound(X,Y) is true at (X; Y ) if this point
belongs to the lane from which cars incoming from North travel to South. Other predicates have
very similar meaning. Note that according to the assumptions stated above about the coordinate
system, southbound(X,Y) is true if 20 < X < 0, and 20 < Y < 200. Notice that we define
“sounthbound” in a bit restricted way: only points on the incoming segment (before the intersection)
are considered southbound. The reason is that we do not use the points from the outgoing segments
to define any traffic rules. So, we do not introduce any of the predicates for points on the outbound
? Let the predicate oppDir(X1,Y1,X2,Y2) mean that points (X1; Y 1) and (X2; Y 2) belong to
the lanes from which traffic goes in the opposite directions. For example, southbound traffic and
northbound traffic have opposite directions. Write all the rules that are required to implement this
predicate completely.
? Let the predicate perpendicDir(X1,Y1,X2,Y2) mean that points (X1; Y 1) and (X2; Y 2)
belong to the incoming lanes from which vehicles travel in the perpendicular directions (i.e., directions at right angle to each other). Because this predicate will be subsequently used to characterize
which right turns are permitted, only lanes relevant to making right turns on the red light should
be mentioned in its implementation. For example, on a red light, one can make a right turn from
a point (X0
; Y 0
) on the eastbound lane to an outbound segment that is continuation of a southbound segment only if there is no nearby car at a point (X00
; Y 00) driving on the southbound lane.
Consequently, to specify geometry of the intersection, we would like to say that for these points
perpendicDir(X’,Y’,X’’,Y’’) is true. Notice that in this example the point (X00
; Y 00)
should be characterized using the predicate southbound(X’’,Y’’) even though the vehicle
makes turn into continuation of a southbound segment, but not into the southbound segment itself.
The main reason for this wording is that only cars from the incoming southbound segment are relevant to deciding whether a right turn is safe from the eastbound lane. As for an opposite example, one
cannot make a right turn from a point (X00
; Y 00) on the southbound lane into an outbound segment
that can be reached by straight motion from the point (X0
; Y 0
) on the eastbound lane since that would
be a left turn. Consequently, for this second pair of points perpendicDir(X’’,Y’’,X’,Y’)
is false. Write all the rules that are required to implement this predicate completely.
? Implement the predicate canDriveStraight(Car,X,Y): it is true if Car is located at (X; Y )
and the traffic light is seen as green from this location. This rule means that a car facing a direction
can keep going in that direction if the light is green.
? Write 2 rules implementing the predicate canTurnRight(Car,X,Y). First, write rule saying
that a car located at (X; Y ) can turn right on the green light. Second, write rule saying that a car
located at (X; Y ) can turn right on the red light, if there is no other incoming car that travels straight
in the direction of a turn and such that the distance to that car is less than 45 units.
? Write a rule implementing the predicate canTurnLeft(Car,X,Y). A car can turn left on the
green light if it is not the case that there is another car that can travel in the opposite direction and
such that the distance to that car is less than 80 units.
Before you test your program, make sure that rules with the same predicate in the head are consecutive.
Or you may include as the first line the following compiler directive
:- discontiguous(myPred/2). % 2 means number of arguments
to say that the rules for myPred(X,Y) alternate with other rules. Otherwise, a compiler may complain
that some of your predicates (heads of rules and atomic statements) are not consecutive. Test your program
using the following atomic statements:
at(honda,11,-26). at(subaru,-3,34). at(bmw,-22,-19). at(ford,21,14).
light(green,11,-26). light(green,-3,34). light(red,-22,-19). light(red,21,14).
More specifically, ask the following queries (use Tools/Tracer in ECLiPSe Prolog to visualize)
?- canDriveStraight(Car,X,Y).
?- canTurnLeft(Car,X,Y).
?- canTurnRight(Car,X,Y).
What answers you are getting? Save them in your file traffic.txt Explain briefly your results in this file.
Argue if they are correct or not. You can lose marks if you do not explain.
Handing in solutions. An electronic copy of: (a) your program (the name of the file must be
that includes all your rules (and given atomic statements). (b) An electronic copy of your session with
Prolog that shows clearly the queries you submitted to Prolog, and the answers that were returned (the
name of this file must be traffic.txt);
3 (25 points). This problem will exercise what you have learned about rules in Prolog, by having
you implement a toy expert system that provides simple financial advises.1
The function of the financial advisor tool is to help a user who got some extra cash decide whether
to save portion or all cash in a savings account or invest in the stock market. Some investors may wish
to split their money between the two depending on their circumstances. The financial decision that will
be recommended for individual investors depends on their income, number of dependents and the current
amount they saved according to the following criteria:
? Individuals with an inadequate savings account should always save the whole amount of extra cash,
regardless of their income.
? Individuals with an adequate savings account and an adequate income should consider splitting in
half their surplus cash between savings and stocks investment to increase the cushion in savings
while attempting to increase their income through stocks.
? Individuals with a lower income who already have an adequate savings account should prefer a
riskier but potentially more profitable investment in the stock market by investing 80% of their extra
cash in stocks and allocating the remaining money into savings.
The adequacy of both savings and income is determined by the number of dependents an individual
must support. In this assignment, we assume one has to keep $9000 in savings for each dependent. We introduce the predicate minSavings(N umberDependents; M inSav) to characterize the amount M inSav
as just stated. The predicate minIn ome(N umberDependents; M inIn ) is used to calculate the minimal income amount as $25000 per year plus an additional $8000 for each dependent. The current financial
description of an individuals is given using the predicates saved(S), which is true if the individual saved
the amount S, the predicate earnings(E), which is true if the individual earns E per year from employment, the predicate ash(C), which is true if C is surplus cash, and the predicate dependents(D), which
is true if the individual has D dependents in total. The expert system is provided with 4 atomic statements
describing an individual: (1) how much the individual saved, (2) what are the earnings, (3) how much cash
is available, (4) how many dependents the individual has.
To implement our toy expert system, you have to translate the guidelines given above into PROLOG.
Use only the following predicates in your implementation: you cannot introduce any other predicates.
1. Write rules implementing the predicates minSavings(D; M) and minIn ome(D; M).
2. Implement the predicate savingsAdequate(Amount; D; M in) with the single rule that makes this
predicate true if the saved Amount is greater (or equal) than the minimal amount M in in savings
required for an individual with D dependents.
3. Write the single rule implementing the predicate in omeAdequate(Amount; D; M in) that is true
if Amount of earnings exceeds or equal to the minimal income amount M in for an individual with
D dependents.
1Disclaimer: the following rules may not be realistic and should not be considered reliable when making any financial
decisions. They do not provide offer, or recommendation to acquire or dispose of any investment or to engage in any other
financial transaction.
4. Let the predicate save(W hat) be true if W hat is portion of extra cash that should be saved given
the current financial circumstances. Implement 3 rules calculating what amount should be saved
depending on whether savings and income are adequate or not. Each rule should implement one of
the guidelines given above.
5. Let the predicate invest(W hat) be true if W hat is part of surplus that should be invested. Write
3 rules in PROLOG calculating what amount should be invested depending on whether savings and
income are adequate or not. In your implementation, use the guidelines given above.
Once you have implemented all the predicates, make up atomic statements with the predicates saved,
earnings, ash and dependents to describe one individual. Add these 4 atomic statements to your rules.
Ask the queries with variables save(X) and invest(Y ) and save the answers in your file. You have to
submit both your PROLOG program and the file with queries and answers.
Handing in solutions. An electronic copy of: (a) your program (the name of the file must be that includes all your rules. (b) Make up your own atomic statements and run queries with variables:
save(S) and invest(I). Submit an electronic copy of your session with Prolog that shows clearly
the queries you submitted to Prolog, and the returned answers ( name this file as advisor.txt)
How to submit this assignment. No printouts. Read regularly Frequently Answered Questions and
replies to them that are linked from the Assignments Web page at
If you write your code on a Windows machine, make sure you save your files as plain text that one can easily read on Linux machines. Before you submit your Prolog code electronically make sure that your files do
not contain any extra binary symbols: it should be possible to load or into a recent
release 6 of ECLiPSe Prolog, compile your program and ask testing queries. TA will mark your assignment
using ECLiPSe Prolog. If you run any other version of Prolog on your home computer, it is your responsibility to make sure that your program will run on ECLiPSe Prolog (release 6 or any more recent release),
as required. For example, you can run a command-line version of /opt/ECLiPSe/bin/x86 64 linux/eclipse
on moon remotely from your home computer to test your program (read handout about running ECLiPSe
Prolog). Read the handout posted on D2L about running ECLiPSe Prolog. To submit files electronically
do the following. First, create a zip archive:
zip store.txt traffic.txt advisor.txt
where yourLoginName is the login name of the person who submits this assignment from a group. Remember to mention at the beginning of each file student numbers and names of all people who participated
in discussions (see the course management form). You may be penalized for not doing so. Second, upload
to D2L into “Assignment 1” folder all individual files and your ZIP file
Improperly submitted assignments will not be marked. In particular, you are not allowed to submit
your assignment by email to a TA or to the instructor.
Revisions: If you would like to submit a revised copy of your assignment, then upload your files again.
The same contact person must upload the files from a group. A new copy of your assignment will override
the old copy. You can submit new versions as many times as you like, and you do not need to inform
anyone about this. Don’t ask your team members to upload your files, because TA will be confused which
version to mark: only one person from a group should submit different revisions of the assignment. The
time stamp of the last file you submit will determine whether you have submitted your assignment on time.

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