Please read the entire pdf before starting. You must do this assignment individually.
In this assignment, you will experiment with multiple ways to pass a function as input to another function.
First, you will use a function pointer, which is similar to how one would do things in C. Then, you will use
an abstract class, similar to how one does things in Java. Finally, you will use a Lambda expression similar
The idea of passing a function to another function is key in many cases when asynchronous programming is
involved. This is because code doesn’t normally flow from a single “main” method. The normal paradigm is
to pass a “callback” function to another function. The callback function specifies what to do once the task
Sort with function pointers
Start with either of the 2 sort functions that you wrote in assignment one. Rename whichever one you keep
to be simply sortWithPointers and add an extra input in your function header. The function should take
an additional input, which is a function taking 2 ints as input and returning a bool representing whether
the first argument should be before the the 2nd argument or not in the final sorted orders. Modify the
contents of your sort function to use the results of this function.
For simplicity, you will probably want to add a typedef statement to the top of your file. For example, if you
add typedef bool (*compFunction)(int, int); then you can use compFunction as a type to represent
a function pointer to a function with 2 int inputs that returns bool.
Hint: Look at lecture 8 slides for help with the syntax.
Test Sort Function With Pointers
Write a function testSortPointers in which you demonstrate calling your new sort function first to sort
an array (make one up) in increasing order, and next to sort it in decreasing order. To do this, you should
define two functions isLessThan and isGreaterThan, each of which take 2 ints as input and return a bool
representing whether the first argument is less than (or greater than) the second argument respectively.
(One could imagine that many other functions could be written instead such as to sort based on the absolute
value of a number. Feel free to add additional methods if you like.)
Sort with interfaces
Next, we will do the same thing except with interfaces.
1. First, define a class IComparer which has one method defined on it isBefore. This should be a pure
virtual method which takes two ints as input and returns a bool.
2. Create an additional method sortWithInterfaces which takes as input an IComparer instead of the
function pointer. The body of the function should be largely identical other than when you use the
3. Next define a class LessThanComparer which extends IComparer. The class should have just the one
method isBefore and should return whether the first input is less than the second input.
4. Next define a class GreaterThanComparer which extends IComparer. The class should have just the
one method isBefore and should return whether the first input is greater than the second input.
5. Next, define a class IsClosestToComparer which extends IComparer. The class IsClosestToComparer
should maintain a private property center and the method isBefore should return true if the first
number is closer to center than the second number is (using the absolute value of the number). This
private property should be set in the constructor for the object.
Test sort with interfaces
Write a function testSortWithInterfaces in which you demonstrate calling your newest sort function
with all 3 different types of comparers.
Using a Lambda Expression
It is far from trivial to use function pointers to accomplish something such as we did with IsClosestToComparer.
The problem is if we want to keep the comparison center point a variable, we need our function to have 3
inputs rather than 2. This would break the sort function that we wrote.
To address this, we will start by using a Lambda expression instead. However (and unfortunately), Lambda
expressions can only be converted to function pointers implicitly if there are no captured variables. A
captured variable is the idea that the function returned will capture a variable from its surroundings (in this
As such, we will have to modify our sort function yet again. Write a function sortWithStandardFunction
which is identical to the sortWithFunctionPointers (from the very first part) except that the input should
be function<bool(int,int)> Note that function is a templated type defined inside the standard library
(remember to add an appropriate using statement and also to include the file functional). The template
type specifies the sort of function. In this case, the type will represent a function taking 2 ints as input and
returning a bool.
Now that you have this 3rd version of the function, a benefit right away is that there is an implicit conversion
between function pointers and function types. So your first sort function version is actually deprecated and
you can see this by the fact that you can call your sortWithStandardFunction the same way that you call
The added benefit, is that we can call this now using a Lambda expression.
Write a function generateNearestTo. The function should take as input an int center and return a
function<bool(int,int)>. The function it returns should take 2 things as input and return true if the
first is closer (based on absolute value) to center than the 2nd is to it.
Hint: Your function is capturing the variable center so make sure that you include it inside your capture
list (the bit between the square brackets) when you define the lambda expression.
Lastly, write a function testSortWithLambdas in which you first call generateNearestTo to generate a
function that will compare with a distance based on comparing to the number 3 and then call it again to
generate a 2nd function by comparing it to the number 10. Call your sortWithStandardFunction function
to show how you would sort based on each of those functions.
What To Submit
You should submit one file called FunctionalPrograming.cpp. This file should contain all of the above
code, copied here for convenience:
1. 3 sort functions: sortWithPointers, sortWithInterfaces, and sortWithStandardFunction
2. 3 test functions: testSortWithPointers, testSortWithInterfaces and testSortWithLambdas.
3. 2 functions : isLessThan and isGreaterThan
4. 4 classes: IComparer, LessThanComparer, GreaterThanComparer, IsClosestComparer.
5. 1 function that returns a function: generateNearestTo.