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# Assignment 2

This assignment is intended to have you start working with stacks and queues and to start building ADTs on top of other data structures.  There are a couple parts to the assignment, each described below.

For this assignment, you are provided with some starter code that defines the structures you’ll be working with and prototypes the functions you’ll be writing.  The starter code also provides some data structures upon which to build a stack and queue implementation.  It’s important that you don’t modify the function prototypes specified in `queue.h` and `stack.h`.  To help grade your assignment, we will use a set of tests that assume these functions exist and have the same prototypes that are defined in those files. If you change the prototypes, it will cause the tests to break, and your grade for the assignment will likely suffer.

Feel free to add any additional functions you might need to `queue.c` and `stack.c`.  In addition, you may modify the dynamic array implementation provided in `dynarray.h`/`dynarray.c` or the linked list implementation provided in `list.h`/`list.c` as needed to help implement the queue and stack.

## 1. Implement a stack

In this assignment, you’ll implement two new ADTs on top of the data structures you implemented in the previous assignment.  The first ADT you’ll implement for this assignment is a [stack](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stack_(abstract_data_type)).

A stack is a linear data type, that restricts the user to operate only on one end of the collection being stored.  This end of the collection is referred to as the “top”.  New elements may only be inserted at the top of the stack, and only the element at the top of the stack (which is always the most recently added) may be removed.  This constraint means that elements in a stack are ordered in “last in, first out” (or LIFO) order.  In this way, the stack ADT behaves much like a physical stack, for example, a stack of books or of dishes, where we can only add and remove items to and from the top of the stack.

For this assignment, the interface for the stack (i.e. the structures and the prototypes of functions a user of the stack interacts with) is already defined for you in the file `stack.h`.  Your first task in this assignment is to implement definitions for the functions that comprise this interface in `stack.c`.

**Note that you may not modify the interface definition with which you are provided.**  Specifically, do not modify any of the already-defined stack function prototypes.  We will use a set of tests to verify your implementation, and if you change the stack interface, it will break these tests, which will (negatively) affect your grade.  Beyond the already-defined interface, though, feel free to add any additional functions or structures your stack implementation needs.

The stack functions you’ll need to implement are outlined briefly below.  All of these functions use a type called `struct stack`, which is defined in `stack.c` and represents the stack itself.  For more details, including information on function parameters and expected return values, see the documentation provided in `stack.c`.

* **`stack_create()`** – This function should allocate, initialize, and return a pointer to a new stack structure.

* **`stack_free()`** – This function should free the memory held within a stack structure created by `stack_create()`.  Note that this function only needs to free the memory held by the stack itself.  It does not need to free the individual elements stored in the stack.  This is the responsibility of the calling function.

* **`stack_isempty()`** – This function should return 1 if the stack is empty and 0 otherwise.

* **`stack_push()`** – This function should insert a new element on top of the stack.  **This operation must have O(1) average runtime complexity.**

* **`stack_top()`** – This function should return the value stored at the top of the stack without removing it.  **This operation must have O(1) average runtime complexity.**

* **`stack_pop()`** – This function should pop a value from the stack and return the popped value.  **This operation must have O(1) average runtime complexity.**

Importantly, the stack you build **MUST** use a linked list as its underlying data storage.  You are provided with a linked list implementation in `list.h` and `list.c` that you may use for this purpose.  Feel free to modify this linked list implementation as needed to implement your stack, *with the constraint that your stack may only interact with the linked list implementation via its interface functions.*  In particular, you may not directly access or modify the fields of the linked list structure (`struct list`) from your stack.  In other words, you may not change the fact that `list.h` only contains a forward declaration of `struct list`, and you may not redefine the list structure in `stack.h` or `stack.c`.

Also, note that, as with the data structures you implemented in assignment 1, values in the stack will be stored as void pointers.

## 2. Implement a queue

The second ADT you’ll implement for this assignment is a [queue](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queue_(abstract_data_type)).  A queue is a two-ended, linear data structure where all elements must be inserted at one end of the queue (the “back”) and can only be removed from the other end of the queue (the “front”).  In this way, elements stored in a queue are ordered in “first in, first out” (FIFO) order.  In other words, each element removed from a queue will always be the one that was inserted before all the other elements stored in the queue.  Thus, the queue ADT works much like a line like you’d encounter at a grocery store or amusement park, where the first people to enter the line are the first ones who get to check out or ride a ride (much of the world outside the US actually calls a line like this a “queue”).

For this assignment, the interface for the queue (i.e. the structures and the prototypes of functions a user of the queue interacts with) is already defined for you in the file `queue.h`.  Your first task in this assignment is to implement definitions for the functions that comprise this interface in `queue.c`.

**Note that you may not modify the interface definition with which you are provided.**  Specifically, do not modify any of the already-defined queue function prototypes.  We will use a set of tests to verify your implementation, and if you change the queue interface, it will break these tests, thereby (negatively) affecting your grade.  Beyond the already-defined interface, though, feel free to add any additional functions or structures your queue implementation needs.

The queue functions you’ll need to implement are outlined briefly below.  All of these functions use a type called `struct queue`, which is defined in `queue.c` and represents the queue itself.  For more details, including information on function parameters and expected return values, see the documentation provided in `queue.c`.

* **`queue_create()`** – This function should allocate, initialize, and return a pointer to a new queue structure.

* **`queue_free()`** – This function should free the memory held within a queue structure created by `queue_create()`.  Note that this function only needs to free the memory held by the queue itself.  It does not need to free the individual elements stored in the queue.  This is the responsibility of the calling function.

* **`queue_isempty()`** – This function should return 1 if the queue is empty and 0 otherwise.

* **`queue_enqueue()`** – This function should insert a new element at the back of the queue.  **This operation must have O(1) average runtime complexity.**

* **`queue_front()`** – This function should return the value stored at the front of the queue without removing it.  **This operation must have O(1) average runtime complexity.**

* **`queue_dequeue()`** – This function should dequeue a value from the queue and return the dequeued value.  **This operation must have O(1) average runtime complexity.**

Importantly, the queue you build **MUST** use a dynamic array as its underlying data storage.  You are provided with a dynamic array implementation in `dynarray.h` and `dynarray.c` that you may use for this purpose.  Feel free to modify this dynamic array implementation as needed to implement your queue, *with the constraint that your queue may only interact with the dynamic array implementation via its interface functions.*  In particular, you may not directly access or modify the fields of the dynamic array structure (`struct dynarray`) from your queue.  In other words, you may not change the fact that `dynarray.h` only contains a forward declaration of `struct dynarray`, and you may not redefine the dynamic array structure in `queue.h` or `queue.c`.

Also, note that, as with the data structures you implemented in assignment 1, values in the queue will be stored as void pointers.

## 3. Application: testing for palindromes

Finally, in `palindrome.c`, you should implement an application that uses both your stack and your queue to test for palindromes.  A palindrome is a string that reads the same backward as forward, e.g. “ABCBA” or “Madam, I’m Adam”.  Your application will read strings from the user, and for each string the user inputs, it should print a message indicating to the user whether or not the string is a palindrome.  There’s already some code in `palindrome.c` to get you started.  Here are some things you should bear in mind as you’re implementing your application:

* Your palindrome testing procedure must use **BOTH** your stack and your queue.  In other words, for each string the user enters, you must print a single message indicating whether or not that string is a palindrome, and the procedure to compute that message must use *both* a stack and a queue.  To understand how you might do this, think carefully about the ordering each data structure imposes on the elements put into it.  (This is another question like you might be asked during a job interview.)

* When testing whether a string is a palindrome, you should ignore all non-letter characters, such as numbers, spaces, punctuation, etc.  The C function [`isalpha()`](https://www.programiz.com/c-programming/library-function/ctype.h/isalpha) might be helpful here.  Don’t forget to include `ctype.h` if you want to use `isalpha()`.

* When testing whether a string is a palindrome, you should also ignore the case of letters.  In other words, uppercase letters and lowercase letters should be considered equivalent.  For example, you should consider ‘a’ and ‘A’ as equal.  The C function [`tolower()`](https://www.programiz.com/c-programming/library-function/ctype.h/tolower) might be helpful here.  Again, don’t forget to include `ctype.h` if you want to use `tolower()`.

* Remember, the stack and queue data structures you implement will store data as void pointers, so you’ll need to figure out how to store characters from the input string as void pointers in these data structures.

* Make sure your application doesn’t have any memory leaks!

## Extra credit: use two stacks to implement a queue

For up to 10 points of extra credit, you can implement a data structure that uses two instances of your stack data structure to implement a queue.  In other words, you should implement a queue that uses two stacks to form the underlying container in which data is stored (instead of, for example, a dynamic array or a linked list).  For example, when the user calls `enqueue()` on your queue-from-stacks data structure, it will add the newly-enqueued element into one of the two stacks, as appropriate, and when the user calls `dequeue()`, your queue-from-stacks will remove the appropriate element from one of the two stacks.  To the user of your queue-from-stacks, it will behave just like a normal queue.  (This is yet another “job interview” kind of problem!)

> Hint: to implement a queue using two stacks, it might help to think of one stack as an “inbox” and one stack as an “outbox”.

The interface of your queue-from-stacks is defined in `queue_from_stacks.h`, and you must complete each of the functions implementing the queue-from-stacks in `queue_from_stacks.c`.  Each of the functions in `queue_from_stacks.c` has a function header comment that describes more precisely how it should behave.

To be able to earn this extra credit, your stack implementation above must be working correctly, and importantly, you may only use the functions from your stack implementation prototyped in `stack.h` to interface with your two stacks.  You may not access the underlying stack data directly.  Also, make sure your queue-from-stacks implementation does not have any memory leaks!  Note that there are no runtime complexity requirements for the queue-from-stacks operations.  In other words, you can still earn the full extra credit even if your enqueue and/or dequeue operation is O(n).

To test your queue-from-stacks implementation, a testing application `test_queue_from_stacks.c` is provided.  This application will be compiled automatically using the provided makefile.  You can run it like so: `./test_queue_from_stacks`.

## Testing your work

In addition to the skeleton code provided here, you are also provided with some application code in `test_stack.c` and `test_queue.c` to help verify that your stack and queue implementations, respectively, are behaving the way you want them to.  In particular, the testing code calls the functions from `stack.c` and `queue.c`, passing them appropriate arguments, and then prints the results.  You can use the provided `Makefile` to compile all of the code in the project together, and then you can run the testing code as follows:
“`
make
./test_stack
./test_queue
“`
Example output of these two testing programs using correct implementations of the stack and queue is provided in the `example_output/` directory.

In order to verify that your memory freeing functions work correctly, it will be helpful to run the testing applications through `valgrind`.

## Submission

We’ll be using GitHub Classroom for this assignment, and you will submit your assignment via GitHub. Just make sure your completed files are committed and pushed by the assignment’s deadline to the main branch of the GitHub repo that was created for you by GitHub Classroom. A good way to check whether your files are safely submitted is to look at the main branch of your assignment repo on the github.com website (i.e. https://github.com/osu-cs261-f21/assignment-2-YourGitHubUsername/). If your changes show up there, you can consider your files submitted.

## Grading criteria

Your program **MUST** compile and run on `access.engr.oregonstate.edu` (or `flip`), so make sure you have tested your work there before you make your final submission, since a program that compiles and runs in one environment may not compile and run in another.  **Assignments that do not compile on `access` or `flip` will receive a grade of 0.**  If you do not have an ENGR account, you can create one at https://teach.engr.oregonstate.edu/.

The assignment is worth 100 total points, broken down as follows:

* 45 points: Correctly implements a stack using a linked list as the underlying data storage
* 5 points: `stack_create()` correctly allocates and initializes a stack
* 5 points: `stack_free()` correctly frees the memory allocated to a stack with no memory leaks
* 5 points: `stack_isempty()` correctly determines whether a stack is empty
* 10 points: `stack_push()` correctly pushes a value onto a stack with O(1) average runtime complexity
* 10 points: `stack_top()` correctly returns the top value on a stack and `stack_pop()` correctly pops a value from a stack and returns it, both with O(1) average runtime complexity
* 10 points: the stack implementation correctly uses a linked list for its underlying data storage using only the linked list implementation’s interface functions (i.e. without accessing the internals of the list implementation)

* 45 points: Correctly implements a stack using a dynamic array as the underlying data storage
* 5 points: `queue_create()` correctly allocates and initializes a queue
* 5 points: `queue_free()` correctly frees the memory allocated to a queue with no memory leaks
* 5 points: `queue_isempty()` correctly determines whether a queue is empty
* 10 points: `queue_enqueue()` correctly enqueues a value into a queue with O(1) average runtime complexity
* 10 points: `queue_front()` correctly returns the front value from a queue and `queue_dequeue()` correctly dequeues a value from a queue and returns it, both with O(1) average runtime complexity
* 10 points: the queue implementation correctly uses a dynamic array for its underlying data storage using only the dynamic array implementation’s interface functions (i.e. without accessing the internals of the dynamic array implementation)

* 10 points: Correctly implements an application to test for palindromes using both a stack and a queue, as described above

* Extra credit: up to 10 points for a correct queue-from-stacks implementation, as described above.