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COMP2404A-“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4
2 Learning Outcomes
In this assignment you will learn to
1. Write an application where we begin to separate into control, view, entity, and collection object classes.
2. Take a first step towards data abstraction instead of raw arrays.
3. Use a UML diagram to implement classes and the interaction between between classes.
4. Implement proper memory management when using dynamic memory.
5. Implement proper encapsulation (using the const keyword where appropriate)
VERY IMPORTANT!!! YOU WILL LOSE MARKS IF YOU DO NOT CONST YOUR FUNCTIONS AND PARAMETERS!!!.
3 Overview
You will be writing C++ code that mimics a photo viewing application (called PhotoGram). Any Photo on PhotoGram
must belong to an Album. Thus Albums are responsible for the memory management of Photos and PhotoGram is
responsible for the memory management of Albums. Albums have a title and a description and a data structure for
storing Photos. Each Photo will have a title, Date taken, and content (which are the pictures themselves). Photos
may be printed (which is to have their metadata displayed without the content) or displayed, which is to print
their metadata and content together to the console.
PhotoGram will consist of 0 or more Albums. A Client class will be able connect to PhotoGram where they can
display Photos from any Album stored on PhotoGram. In addition, the Client will be able to “download” Albums.
This copies the Album to “local storage”, which, in this exercise, is a data structure in the Client class. Users can
then display the Album locally, which should work even if the PhotoGram network deletes the original Album. In other
words, downloading consists of making a deep copy of the Album.
There is a TestControl class that connects and test the functionality of the PhotoGram and Client classes.
This class and the test functions are written for you. You will then be able to run various tests using the TestControl
and TestView objects.
To assist you in writing these classes a UML diagram is provided.
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
4 UML Diagram
1
TestView
+ showMenu(out choice:int)
PhotoGram
// add and remove
+ addAlbum(in title string, in description: string): bool
+ addPhoto(in albumTitle: string, in photo: Photo): bool
+ removeAlbum(in albumTitle: string): bool
+ removePhoto(in albumTitle: string, in photoTitle: string): bool
// Client services
+ downloadAlbum(in albumTitle: string): Album
+ downloadPhoto(in albumTitle: string, in photoTitle: string): Photo
// print
+ printAlbums();
+ displayAlbums();
Album
– title: string
– description: string
+ equals(in albumTitle: string): bool
+ lessThan(in album: Album) bool
+ addPhoto(in photo: Photo): bool
+ addPhoto(in index: int, in photo: Photo): bool
+ getPhoto(in index: int): Photo
+ getPhoto(in songTitle: string): Photo
+ removePhoto(in index: int): Photo
+ removePhoto(in songTitle: string): Photo
+ size(): int
+ print()
+ display()
Photo
– title: string
– content: string
+ equals(in title: string): bool
+ print()
+ display()
0..* 0..*
0..*
1 Client
+ downloadAlbum(in pg: PhotoGram, in albumTitle: string): bool
+ displayOnlinePhoto (in pg: PhotoGram,in albumTitle: string, in photoTitle: string): bool
+ displayLocalPhoto(in albumTitle: string, in photoTitle: string): bool
+ printLocalAlbums()
+ displayLocalAlbums()
uses
1
TestControl
– albumTitles: string[5]
– descriptions: string[5]
– photoTitles: string[5][5]
– photoContent: string[5][5]
+ launch()
– initialize(in/out pg: PhotoGram)
– photoTest()
– albumTest()
– albumArrayTest()
– photoGramTest()
– clientTest()
– ran(out set:unordered_set<int>, in count: int, in range: int)
– ran(in from: int, in to: int): int
Date
– day: int
– month: int
– year: int
+ print()
1
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
5 Classes Overview
This application will consist of 9 classes. In addition to the classes shown in the UML diagram above, there are
AlbumArray and PhotoArray classes. All classes are listed below along with their respective categories. You should
refer the instructions and the UML diagram to construct your app.
1. The Date class (Entity object):
(a) Contains date information.
2. The Photo class (Entity object):
(a) Contains information about the photo
(b) Displays content through a View object, which in this case is std::cout
(c) Note: In the interests of space, and since Date is given to you, the Date UML diagram is incomplete.
3. The Album class (Entity object):
(a) Contains information about the album
(b) Manages a collection of Photos
4. The PhotoArray class (Collection object):
(a) Data structure for Photos.
5. The AlbumArray class (Collection object):
(a) Data structure for Albums.
6. The PhotoGram class (Control object):
(a) Manages a collection of Albums.
(b) Provides services to the Client (such as display and download).
(c) Prints error messages to std::cout
7. The Client class (Control object):
(a) “Connects” to the PhotoGram network to display Photos or download Albums.
(b) Manages a collection of downloaded Albums.
(c) Prints error messages when appropriate.
8. The TestControl class (Control object):
(a) Controls the running of tests on your application
(b) Interacts with TestView
9. The TestView class (Boundary object):
(a) Takes input from the user performing the tests
In addition, we will be using std::cout as the main View output object for error reporting.
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
6 Instructions
Download the starting code from Brightspace. It includes some global functions that you are to use for testing as
well as the Date class. All member variables are private unless otherwise noted. All member functions are public
unless otherwise noted. Some return values are not explicitly given. You should use your best judgment (they will
often be void, but not always). ALL CLASSES MUST HAVE A PRINT FUNCTION (except for PhotoArray and
AlbumArray). This print function should display the metadata of the class using appropriate formatting.
Your finished code should compile into a single executable called a2 using the command make all or simply
make. Your submission should consist of a single zip file with a suitable name (e.g., assignment2.zip) that contains
a folder containing all your files. This folder should also contain a README with your name, student number, a list
of all files that are included, a directory structure (if applicable), compiling and running instructions, and any other
information that will make the TAs life easier when they mark your assignment.
6.1 The Date Class
This class is provided for you. You should apply const wherever appropriate.
6.2 The Photo Class
Implement the Photo class.
1. Member variables:
(a) title and content members, both strings.
(b) A Date object.
2. Make a constructor that takes the arguments: const string& title, const Date& date, const string&
content. Initialize the member variables appropriately.
3. Make a function equals(title) that returns true if the title parameter is equal to the title member
variable of this Photo, and false otherwise.
4. Make a print function. This should print out the Photo metadata (not including the content).
5. Make a display function. This is similar to a print function except that after printing the metadata you
should output the content.
6.3 The PhotoArray Class
You may use the Array class seen in class (Chapter 8: Object Design Categories) as a starting point. Also note that
we want to be able to specify the order that Photos are stored in. Thus we will overload the add, get, and remove
functions to use indexes in addition to their canonical form.
1. Member variables:
(a) The PhotoArray class should use a dynamically allocated array of Photo pointers as a backing array. Be
sure to keep track of the number of Photos currently stored.
2. Member functions. Note: there are two each of get, add, and remove:
(a) Make an isFull function that returns true if the array is full and false otherwise.
(b) Make an add function that takes a Photo pointer as an argument and adds it to the back of the array.
Return true if successful and false if the array is full.
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
(c) Make an add function that takes an index and a Photo pointer as arguments and attempts to add the
Photo to the array at the index indicated. Return false if the array is full or the index is invalid. Return
true if successful.
(d) Make a get function that takes a title as an argument and returns (using a return value) the pointer to
the Photo with that title. If there is no Photo with the given title, return NULL.
(e) Make a get function that takes an index as an argument and returns the Photo pointer at the index
given, or NULL if the index is invalid.
(f) Make a remove function that takes a title as an argument. It should removes the Photo pointer from
the array and return it (using a return value). If there is no Photo with the given title return NULL.
(g) Make a remove function that takes an index as an argument. If the index is valid return the Photo pointer
at that index, otherwise return NULL.
(h) Make a size function returns the number of Photos in the array as a return value.
6.4 The Album Class
Implement an Album class. This is a light wrapper for a PhotoArray. As such it duplicates a lot of PhotoArray
functions, but adds a few members.
1. Member variables:
(a) title and description members, both strings.
(b) a dynamically allocated PhotoArray.
2. Make a constructor that takes two strings as arguments: title and description, in that order. Initialize all
member variables appropriately.
3. Make a copy constructor. This should do a deep copy of all data.
4. Make a destructor. Make sure all dynamically allocated memory reachable by this class is deleted.
5. Member functions. Note that many of the PhotoArray functions are duplicated. Be lazy. Whenever possible,
make PhotoArray do the work:
(a) Make a getter for title.
(b) Make a function equals that takes a title as an argument and returns true if the Album title matches the
title parameter and false otherwise.
(c) Make a function lessThan that takes an Album& alb as an argument and returns true if this Album is
less than alb in alphabetical order by title, and false otherwise.
(d) Make an add function that takes a Photo pointer as an argument. Attempt to add it to the PhotoArray.
Return true if successful and false if the array is full.
(e) Make an add function that takes an index and a Photo pointer as arguments. Attempt to add the Photo
to the PhotoArray at the index indicated. Return false if the array is full or the index is invalid. Return
true if successful.
(f) Make a get function that takes a title as an argument and returns the Photo pointer as a return value
if the Photo exists and NULL otherwise.
(g) Make a get function that takes an index as an argument and returns the Photo pointer as a return value
if the index is valid and NULL otherwise.
(h) Make a remove function that takes a title as an argument, removes and returns the Photo pointer as a
return value if the Photo exists and NULL otherwise.
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
(i) Make a remove function that takes an index as an argument and removes and returns the Photo pointer
as a return value if the Photo exists and NULL otherwise.
(j) Have the print function print out all the metadata for this Album.
(k) Make a display function that prints the metadata for this Album and displays all the Photos.
6.5 The AlbumArray Class
Implement an AlbumArray class. You can reuse (copy and paste) any appropriate code from the PhotoArray class.
(Copying and pasting code is generally speaking not good software engineering, though it presents the best solution
at this time – we will see better solutions once we learn templates.)
1. Member variables:
(a) The AlbumArray class should use a dynamically allocated array of Album pointers as a backing array. Be
sure to keep track of the number of Albums currently stored.
2. Member functions. Note: there are two each of get, and remove, similar to PhotoArray. However AlbumArray
has a single add function:
(a) Make an add function that takes an Album pointer as an argument and adds it adds in order as defined by
Album::lessThan(Album&). Return true if successful and false if the array is full. 2 Make an isFull
function that returns true if the AlbumArray is full and false otherwise.
(b) Make a get function that takes a title as an argument and returns (using a return value) the pointer to
the Album with that title. If there is no Album with the given title, return NULL.
(c) Make a get function that takes an index as an argument and returns the Album pointer at the index
given, or NULL if the index is invalid.
(d) Make a remove function that takes a title as an argument. It should removes the Album pointer from
the array and return it (using a return value). If there is no Album with the given title return NULL.
(e) Make a remove function that takes an index as an argument. If the index is valid return the Album pointer
at that index, otherwise return NULL.
(f) Make a size function returns the number of Albums in the array as a return value.
6.6 The PhotoGram Class
Make a PhotoGram class. Refer to the UML diagram for details and complete function signatures. For this class,
when an operation fails (such as addAlbum or removeAlbum), be sure to send an appropriate error message to cout.
1. Member variables:
(a) an AlbumArray pointer.
2. The constructor should initialize all member variables appropriately.
3. The destructor should delete all dynamically allocated memory reachable by this class.
4. addAlbum: If there is room in the AlbumArray create a new Album and add it to the AlbumArray and return
true. If the AlbumArray is full return false.
5. removeAlbum: If there is an Album that matches the arguments remove it from the AlbumArray and return
true. If there is no such Album return false. Make sure to properly manage the memory (i.e., delete the
Album).
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
6. addPhoto: If we successfully add the Photo to the given Album, return true, otherwise return false. Update
Feb 6: Please add a Photo object (by reference) for the second parameter, not a Photo pointer.
7. removePhoto: If there is a Photo with the given title in the given Album, remove the Photo and return true.
Otherwise return false. Note: Be sure to properly manage your memory.
8. downloadAlbum: Returns an Album pointer if the Album exists, returns NULL otherwise.
9. downloadPhoto: Returns a Photo pointer if the Photo exists, returns NULL otherwise.
10. printAlbums: This should print all Albums stored in PhotoGram.
11. displayAlbums: This should display every Album stored in PhotoGram.
6.7 The Client Class
Make a Client class. Refer to the UML diagram for detail and complete function signatures. As in the PhotoGram
class, when an operation fails, be sure to send an appropriate error message to cout (unless there is already an error
message being displayed from PhotoGram).
1. This class should have a AlbumArray pointer.
2. Make a constructor which initializes member variables appropriately.
3. Make a destructor which deletes member variables appropriately, i.e., delete all dynamic memory reachable
from this class.
4. downloadAlbum: Attempt to download an Album from PhotoGram with the given title. If successful, and there
is room in the AlbumArray, make a copy of the Album and add it to the AlbumArray and return true. If
unsuccessful return false.
5. displayOnlinePhoto: If PhotoGram contains an Album with the title given, and this Album has a Photo with
the title given, then display this Photo. If successful return true. If unsuccessful return false.
6. displayLocalPhoto: If the Client contains an Album with the title given, and this Album has a Photo with
the title given, then display this Photo. If successful return true. If unsuccessful return false.
7. printLocalAlbums: print every Album stored in the Client.
8. displayLocalAlbums: display every Album stored in the Client.
6.8 The TestControl and TestView Classes
These classes have been done for you. They work as follows. The launch function in the TestControl class
instantiates and displays a TestView object to gather user input. Based on the input, it calls one of 5 private test
functions from the TestControl class. This repeats until the user selects 0, at which point the program exits.
6.9 The main Function
This has also been provided for you. It instantiates a TestControl object and calls launch.
7 Grading
The marks are divided into three main categories. The first two categories, Requirements and Constraints are
where marks are earned. The third category, Deductions is where you are penalized marks.
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
7.1 Specification Requirements
These are marks for having a working application (even when not implemented according to the specification, within
reason). The test suite will automatically allocate some marks. Other marks are designated manual marks, or you
may be asked to assign marks manually. These places are indicated in the output by the string **MANUAL MARK**. In
these cases you must visually inspect the output to determine if the code has run correctly, then assign the necessary
marks.
You are still responsible for, and may be penalized for, any errors the test suite does not catch. This is especially
important here, as the testing requirements for this application are quite rigorous, and there may be some additional
cases added to the final test suite. Any drastic departure from the specification may still result in a penalty (such
as using outside libraries).
General Requirements
• All marking components must be called and execute successfully to earn marks.
• All data handled must be printed to the screen to earn marks (make sure print and display all print useful
information).
Application Requirements: 24 marks
• 2 marks: Photo works correctly.
• 5 marks: Album and PhotoArray work correctly.
• 5 marks: AlbumArray works correctly.
• 7 marks: PhotoGram works correctly.
• 5 marks: Client works correctly.
Requirements Total: 24 marks
7.2 Constraints
The previous section awards marks if your program works correctly. In this section marks are awarded if your
program is written according to the specification and using proper object oriented programming techniques. This
includes but is not limited to:
• Apply “const”-ness to your program.
– Print statements, getters, and any member function that does not change the value of any member variables
should be const.
– Any parameter object (passed by reference) that will not be modified should be const.
• Proper declaration of member variables (correct type, naming conventions, etc).
• Proper instantiation of member variables (statically or dynamically)
• Proper instantiation of objects (statically or dynamically)
• Proper constructor and function signatures.
• Proper constructor and function implementation.
• Proper use of arrays and data structures.
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
• Passing objects by reference or by pointer. Do not pass by value.
• Reusing existing functions wherever possible within reason. There are times where duplicating tiny amounts
of code makes for better efficiency.
• Proper error checking – check array bounds, data in the correct range, etc.
• Release all dynamically allocated memory – check for memory leaks using Valgrind.
7.2.1 Constraints: 18 marks
1. 2 marks: Proper const-ing of the Date class.
2. 2 marks: Proper implementation and const-ing of the Photo class.
3. 2 marks: Proper implementation and const-ing of the PhotoArray class.
4. 2 marks: Proper implementation and const-ing of the Album class.
5. 2 marks: Proper implementation and const-ing of the AlbumArray class.
6. 3 marks: Proper implementation and const-ing of the PhotoGram class.
7. 3 marks: Proper implementation and const-ing of the Client class.
8. 4 marks: Manage memory properly (no memory leaks)
(a) You will lose 1 mark per test section that produces a memory leak or a double free error, to a maximum
of 4.
Constraints Total: 20 marks
Requirements Total: 24 marks
Assignment Total: 44 marks
7.3 Deductions
The requirements listed here represent possible deductions from your assignment total. In addition to the constraints
listed in the specification, these are global level constraints that you must observe. For example, you may only use
approved libraries, and your programming environment must be properly configured to be compatible with the virtual
machine. This is not a comprehensive list. Any requirement specified during class but not listed here must also be
observed.
7.3.1 Documentation and Style
1. Up to 10%: Improper indentation or other neglected programming conventions.
2. Up to 10%: Code that is disorganized and/or difficult to follow (use comments when necessary).
COMP2404A (Winter 23) -“Introduction to Software Engineering”
Assignment 2 of 4 – Due Monday February 27th, 11:59 pm
7.3.2 Packaging and file errors:
1. 5%: Missing README
2. 10%: Missing Makefile (assuming this is a simple fix, otherwise see 4 or 5).
3. up to 10%: Failure to use proper file structure (separate header and source files for example), but your program
still compiles and runs
4. up to 50%: Failure to use proper file structure (such as case-sensitive files and/or Makefile instructions) that
results in program not compiling, but is fixable by a TA using reasonable effort.
5. up to 100%: Failure to use proper file structure or other problems that severely compromise the ability to
compile and run your program.
As an example, submitting Windows C++ code and Makefile that is not compatible with the Linux VM would
fall under 4 or 5 depending on whether a reasonable effort could get it running.
7.3.3 Incorrect object-oriented programming techniques:
• Up to 10%: Substituting C functions where C++ functions exist (e.g. don’t use printf or scanf, do use cout
and cin).
• Up to 25%: Using smart pointers.
• Up to 25%: Using global functions or global variables other than the main function and those functions and
variables expressly permitted or provided for initialization and testing purposes.
7.3.4 Unapproved libraries:
• Up to 100%: The code must compile and execute in the default course VM provided. It must NOT require
any additional libraries, packages, or software besides what is available in the standard VM.
• Up to 100%: Your program must not use any classes, containers, or algorithms from the standard template
library (STL) unless expressly permitted.

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