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CPSC 213 – Assignment 4
Structs and Instance Variables

Learning Objectives
Here are the learning objectives of this assignment, which will be examined in this week’s quiz.
They are a subset of the unit learning objectives listed on Slide 2 of Unit 1c.
After completing this assignment you should be able to:
1. read and write C code that includes structs
2. compare Java classes/objects with C structs
3. explain the difference between static and non-static variables in Java and C
4. distinguish static and dynamic computation for access to members of a static struct
variable in C
5. distinguish static and dynamic computation for access to members of a non-static struct
variable in C
6. translate C struct-access code into assembly language
7. count memory references required to access struct elements
Goal
The goal of this assignment is the learn more about structs in C and how they are implemented
by the compiler. To begin you will convert a small Java program to C using structs. Then, you’ll
switch to the considering the translation from C to machine-code, in two steps. There is a new
snippet to get you started. Then there is a small C program to convert to assembly.
Background
Some notes about C programs that you may find helpful. Some of this is repeated from
Assignment 3, included again here for convenience.
Parts of a C program
As you saw last week, C programs typically consist of a collection of “.c” and “.h” files. C
source code files end in “.c”. Files ending in “.h” are called header files and they essentially
list the public interface to a particular C file. In this assignment you will mostly ignore header
files. You will create only a “.c” source file. However, in order to call library functions such as
malloc() you need to include some standard system header files in your program.
To include a header file in a C program you use the #include directive. This is much like the
import statement in Java. What follows the directive is the name of a header file. Header files
delimited by < brackets are standard system files; those in quotes are other header files that are
typically co-located with your .c code. For this assignment you need only include two standard
header files, by putting the following as the beginning of your file (this is already done for you).
#include <stdlib.h
#include <stdio.h
This will give you access to malloc and printf.
One other thing. As in Java, the procedure called main is special. This is the first procedure
that runs when you execute your a program.
Creating and Editing a C Program
You need to decide where you will write, compile and test your programs and what editor and/or
IDE you will use. Any plain-text editor will work fine (e.g., emacs, vim, TextEdit or NotePad).
If you use an editor designed to produce formatted text, be sure your file is configured to be in
plain-text mode; be careful, this is often not the default setting. The compiler does not
understand rich-text format. If you attempt to compile a file and get errors complaining about
unknown characters, then you’ve probably saved your file in non-plain text.
It is easy for you to see how the compiler sees your program to test that you have it in plain text.
At the UNIX command line type
cat foo.c
To see the content of the file foo.c. If you see strange characters and so will the compiler.
Compiling C
To compile a C program you typically need access to the UNIX command line. The command is
called gcc. Be sure to use gcc and not g++, which is the C++ compiler. Enter gcc and then
follow that with a specification of the language variant you are using. Examples I’ve given in
class use the gnu eleven (i.e., 2011) standard, which you can specify with “-std=gnu11” (i.e.,
gnu eleven, not gnu ell ell). Then you should include “-o foo” to specify the name of the
output file (in this case “foo”). If you don’t include this option, the compiler will create a file
called “a.out”. Then after this option you list the name of the C file to compile. So, for
example, if you want to compile the file foo.c into the executable foo, type:
gcc -std=gnu11 -o foo foo.c
To run a program you complied you type that name on the command line preceded by ./. So,
for example, if you want to run foo you type:
./foo
Debugging C
You may need to debug your C program. To use the debugger, you need to add “-g” when you
compile your program. Like this
gcc -g -o foo foo.c
On Linux and Windows, you debug with a program called “gdb”; on the Mac its called “lldb”.
In either case, to start your program in the debugger, you type the name of the debugger, a space,
and then the name of your executable, like this
gdb foo
Or like this
lldb foo
Now you might want set a breakpoint type “b”/“break” and a line number or procedure name
before you run the program with “r”/“run”. You can examine the value of variables with
“p”/“print”. You can step through the execution of a procedure with “n”/“next”, which
skips over procedure calls, or if you want to step into a procedure call use “s”/“step”. To
continue running type “c”/“continue”. To learn more, type “h”/“help”.
Configuring a “Makefile”
In any language, large programs consists of a collection of program
and library files that must be compiled and combined (i.e., linked) to
form the program’s executable file. And so it becomes important to be able to specify how these
pieces fit together and how they depend on each other so that the executable can be built
automatically when you change one of its components. Integrated development environment
tools like IntelliJ do this for you behind the scenes. Some systems use a tool called Ant to do this
(Ant was developed to build the Apache web server and is now a stand-alone, open-source tool
from Apache).
From its origins, Unix systems included a configuration management tool called make (updated
to gnu make). To use make, you create a file called Makefile that describes a program’s
configuration and then, when you want to build it, you type make at the command-line instead
of typing gcc.
Makefile syntax is fairly simple, but strange. It consists mainly of statements of this form:
blah: part1, part2, part2
Note: The second line (the rule) must have a leading TAB.
command_to_build_blah_from_its_parts
This says that blah depends on three other files — part1, part2, and part3 — and if any
of them change, then you can rebuild blah from these parts using the command provided. The
second line is optional if there is already a default rule defined for building that type of target
(defined by its file extension; e.g., .c). You can define new default rules using the make
wildcard character, %, in place of a name. You can also define variables. Some variables, such
as CFLAGS are used by default rules and so you can change them to change the behaviour of
these rules. You can define your own variables and use them using the $(var) syntax.
For example, if you have a C source file named prog.c and you wanted to compile it with a
certain set of command line options to produce an executable named prog, you might place the
following in the file called Makefile in the directory that contains your source code.
CFLAGS += -std=gnu11 -g
EXES = prog
OBJS = prog.o
all: $(EXES)
clean:
rm -f $(OBJS) $(EXES)
tidy:
rm -f $(OBJS)
prog: prog.o
prog.o: prog.c
Having done this you can build the program by typing either “make” or “make prog”. You
can delete all intermediate files by typing “make tidy”. And, you can delete everything but
the original source code by typing “make clean”. Note that each time you ask make to make
a specific target, make searchers for that target on the left-hand-side of colon and then builds it
recursively. When a target file already exists, make compares its last-modification-time to that of
its dependents to see if target needs to be rebuilt, and only rebuilds it if necessary.
We will use makefiles throughout the rest of the term, starting this week with Question 2.
What You Need to Do
Question 1: Debugging a Simple C Program [10%]
The first thing to do is create a very simple C program, compile it and run it.
Using the editor of your choice, create a file called simple.c that looks like this:
#include <stdlib.h
#include <stdio.h
void foo (char* s) {
printf (“%s World\n”, s);
}
int main (int argc, char** argv) {
foo (“Hello”);
}
Then type the following command to compile it (note that the 11 in gnu11 below is the number
eleven):
gcc -std=gnu11 -o simple simple.c
Then type the following command to run it:
./simple
Then type the following command to re-compile it for debugging (you can just include -g all the
time if you like):
gcc -std=gnu11 -g -o simple simple.c
Then type the following (you type what is in black) to run the debugger, set a breakpoint in foo,
run it until it hits the breakpoint, print the value of s, and then continue its execution to
completion. When you print s, the debugger understands that this may be a pointer to a nullterminated string and it thus prints the value of that string. What we want is the value the string.
gdb simple
(gdb) b foo
(gdb) r
(gdb) p s
(gdb) c
If you are on a Mac then use the command lldb instead of gdb.
Record what the program prints in file q1d.txt and the value of s you see at the breakpoint in
the file q1s.txt.
Question 2: Convert Java Program to C [50%]
Download the file www.ugrad.cs.ubc.ca/~cs213/cur/assignments/a4/code.zip. It contains two
files you need for Question 2 plus additional files that you will use later. The files you need for
this part are:
• BinaryTree.java
• BinaryTree.c
The file BinaryTree.java contains a Java program that implements a simple, binary tree.
Examine its code. Compile and run it from the UNIX command line (or in your IDE such as
IntelliJ or Eclipse) :
javac BinaryTree.java
java BinaryTree 4 3 2 1
When the program runs, the command-line arguments (in this case the number 4 3 2 1) are added
to the tree and then printed in depth-first order based on their value. You can provide an arbitrary
number of values on the command line with any numeric values you like.
The file BinaryTree.c is a skeleton of a C program that is meant to do the same thing. Using
the Java program as your guide, implement the C program. The translation is pretty much line
for line, translating Java’s classes/objects to C’s structs.
Note that since C is not object-oriented, C procedures are not invoked on an object (or a struct).
And so, you will see that Java instance methods when converted to C have an extra argument: a
pointer to the object on which the method is invoked in the Java version (i.e., what would be
“this” in Java).
Of course, C also doesn’t have “new”, for this you must use “malloc”. Note that all that
malloc does is allocate memory; it does not do the other things a Java constructor does such as
initialize instance variables. C also doesn’t have “null”; for this you can use “NULL” or “0”.
Finally, C doesn’t have “out.printf”, use “printf” instead. Your goal is to have the C
program produce the same exact output as the Java program for any inputs.
Create a makefile to compile your program with CFLAGS = -std=gnu11 -g.
You Might Follow these Steps
1. Start by defining the Node struct. Note that like a Java class, the struct lists the instance
variables stored in a node object; i.e., value, left, and right. Note that in Java
left and right are variables that store a reference to a node object. Consult your notes
to see how you declare a variable in C that stores a reference to a struct.
2. Now write the create procedure that calls malloc to create a new struct Node,
initializes the values of value, left, and right, and returns a pointer to this new
node. Then call this procedure to allocate one node the value 100 and declare a variable
root to point to it.
3. At this point you have the code that creates a tree with one node. Now write the
procedure printInOrder and compile and test your program to print this one node.
Do not proceed to the next step until it works.
4. Now implement insert. And test it by inserting two nodes to root: one with value 50
and one with value 150. So, now you have a tree with three nodes. When you call
printInOrder on root you should get the output 50 100 150.
5. At this point you should be ready to complete the implementation of main to insert nodes
into the tree with values the come from the command line instead of these original, hardcoded values 50, 100, and 150. Test it again and celebrate.
Snippet S4-instance-var
The code.zip file you downloaded in Question 2 also contains the files
• S4-instance-var.java
• S4-instance-var.c
• s4-instance-var.s
Carefully examine these three files and run s4-instance-var.s in the simulator. Turn
animation on and run it slowly; there are buttons that allow you to pause the animation or to slow
it down or speed it up. Trace through each instruction and explain to yourself what each is doing
and how the instructions related to the .c code. Once you have a good understanding of the
snippet, you can move on to Question 3. There is nothing to hand in this step.
Question 3: Convert C to Assembly Code [40%]
Now, combine your understanding of snippets S1, S2 and S4 to do the following with this piece
of C code.
struct S {
int x[2];
int* y;
struct S* z;
};
int i;
int v0, v1, v2, v3;
struct S s;
void foo () {
v0 = s.x[i];
v1 = s.y[i];
v2 = s.z-x[i];
v3 = s.z-z-y[i];
}
1. Implement this code in SM213 assembly, by following these steps:
(a) Create a new SM213 assembly code file called q3.s with three sections, each with its
own .pos: one for code, one for the static data, and one for the “heap”. Something
like this:
.pos 0x1000
code:
.pos 0x2000
static:
.pos 0x3000
heap:
(b) Using labels and .long directives allocate the variables i, v0, v1, v2, v3, and s in
the static data section. Note the variable s is a “struct S” and so to allocate space
for it here you need to understand how big it its. This section of your file should look
something like this (the ellipsis indicates more lines like the previous one) :
.pos 0x2000
static:
i: .long 0
v0: .long 0
v1: .long 0
v2: .long 0
v3: .long 0
s: .long 0

(c) Now initialize the variables s.y, s.z, s.z-z, and s.z-z-y to point to
locations in “heap” as if malloc had been called for each of them. For the array,
allocate two integers. You want to create a snapshot of what memory would look like
after the program and executed these statements:
s.y = malloc (2 * sizeof (int));
s.z = malloc (sizeof (struct S));
s.z-z = malloc (sizeof (struct S));
s.z-z-y = malloc (2 * sizeof (int));
You will probably want to assign labels to each of these things, something like this:
s: .long 0
.long 0
.long s_y
.long s_z

heap:
s_y: .long 0 # s.y[0]
.long 0 # s.y[1]
s_z: .long 0 # s.z-x[0]
.long 0 # s.z-x[1]
.long 0 # s.z-y
.long s_z_z # s.z-z
s_z_z: …
(d) Implement the four statements of the procedure foo (not any other part of the
procedure) in SM213 assembly in the code section of your file. Comment every line
carefully. NOTE: you can not use any dynamically computed values as constants in
your code. So, for example, you can not use the labels s_y, s_z etc.
(e) Test your code.
2. Use the simulator to help you answer these questions about this code. The questions ask
you to count the number of memory reads required for each line of foo(). When
counting these memory reads do not include the read for variable i.
(a) How many memory reads occur when the first line of foo() executes?
(b) How many memory reads occur when the second line of foo() executes?
(c) How many memory reads occur when the third line of foo() executes?
(d) How many memory reads occur when the fourth line of foo() executes?
What to Hand In
Use the handin program. The assignment directory is ~/cs213/a4, it should contain the
following files (and nothing else).
1. PARTNER.txt containing your partner’s CS login id and nothing else (i.e., the 4- or 5-
digit id in the form a0z1). Your partner should not submit anything.
2. For Question 1: q1d.txt and q1s.txt. Be sure that q1s.txt contains the value of s
at the breakpoint and nothing else.
3. For Question 2: BinaryTree.c and Makefile
4. For Question 3: q3.s, q3a.txt, q3b.txt, q3c.txt, and q3d.txt containing your
answers to the questions in Part 2 of that question. The text files should contain your
answers as numbers without any explanation to make it easy for the auto-marker to read
your answer.

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