CSDS 233 – Introduction to Data Structures
Programming Assignment 6:
Grading criteria, submission instructions, and general guidelines are described in the documents included with the
assignment on canvas. These are the same as they were for previous programming assignments. See the P6 canvas page for
the grading rubric.
In this assignment you will implement basic graph search algorithms. The specifications below are fairly detailed, but they
do not attempt to describe every situation or consideration exhaustively. It is part of the programming exercises to decide
how to handle these types of cases and do something reasonable.
Constructing undirected, unweighted graphs
Create a class Graph<K,V> with the methods listed below. Nodes are referenced by their node names, which are type K.
The nodes may contain additional information of type V. The methods with boolean return types should return true if
successful and false otherwise. The graph should be implemented using
adjacency lists. That means that there is a list for
each vertex which contains all the edges incident to that vertex. Your implementation should be efficient in the space
• boolean addNode(K name, V data ) – adds a node to the graph and checks for duplicates.
• boolean addNodes(K names, V data) – adds a list of nodes to the graph and checks for duplicates.
You may throw an exception if the length of the names and data arrays are different.
• boolean addEdge(K from, K to) – adds an undirected edge from node from to node to.
• boolean addEdges(K from, K… toList) – adds an undirected edge from node from to each node in toList.
• boolean removeNode(K name) – removes a node from the graph along with all connected edges.
• boolean removeNodes(K… nodelist) – removes each node in nodelist and their edges from the graph.
• void printGraph() – prints the graph in the same adjacency list format in the read method described below. The
nodes and their neighbors and their neighbors should be listed in alphabetical order.
Reading graphs from a file
It is also useful to be able to specify more complex graphs with a simple specification from a text file. Implement the
• static <V> Graph<String,V> read(filename) – constructs a graph from a text file using the following format:
<nodename1> <neighbor1> <neighbor2> …
<nodename2> <neighbor1> <neighbor2> …
This is a simple adjacency list of node names and list of neighbors. Names can be any alpha-numneric strings using white
space as separators. The neighbors do not need to be in any particular order. If a neighbor node has not yet been specified
(as the first node in a line), it should be created. If a line contains only a node and no neighbors, it represents a
disconnected node. If some specifications are redundant (e.g. the same edge twice), they should be ignored. The data
stored in each node should be initialized to null.
Next you will implement methods to find paths between two nodes using depth-first and breadth-first search. You
will see DFS and BFS in Wednesday’s lecture, but you are encouraged to look up implementations in your textbook.
• K DFS(K from, K to) – returns the result, i.e. the path or a list of node names, of depth-first search between
nodes from and to. It should return an empty array if no path exists. The first entry of the returned array
should be from and the last value of the array should be to. Each consecutive value should be the name of a
node that can be reached by a single edge from the previous value in the array.
• K BFS(K from, K to) – as in DFS, but using the breadth-first search algorithm. If there are multiple paths of
equivalent length, you only need to return one of them. The format of the path should be the same as that
returned by the DFS routine.
Your demonstration should use multiple examples to illustrate all the functionality.
A Fun Application of Graphs and DFS/BFS
Create a program called WordLadders. The main method should take a filename as input where the file is a “word
graph” representation (described below). The program will create a graph from this file. Then the program will
query the user for a start and end vertex (represented by a word) and whether to do a DFS or BFS. The program
will then print the path found between the start and the end, and query the user for another pair of words. The
program ends when the user stops entering words.
To read in a “word graph”, the program should have the following method:
● static Graph<Integer, String> readWordGraph(filename) constructs a graph from a text file using the
<nodename1> <nodedata1> <neighbor1> <neighbor2> <neighbor3>
<nodenade2> <nodedata2> <neighbor2> <neighbor2> <neighbor3>
Here each node name is type Integer and each node data is type String.
Your program should then have a method that takes the graph, gets the list of nodes and places them into a
hashtable where the node data is the key for the hashtable and the node name is the data associated with that key.
This will let you lookup nodes by their data.
Now, create a routine that queries two words from the user. The program should:
1. Hash the words given and use the hash table to get the names of the nodes that contain each of those
2. Use either the BFS or DFS routine to get the path from the node of the first word to the node of the second
3. The BFS/DFS routines will return an array of node names that represent the path. Your program should
print the associated node values. Since here the node names are integers and the node values are strings,
this will print a list of strings.
There are two word graph files provided for you. These have “words” for each node in the graph and two nodes are
connected by an edge if the words differ by a single letter.
● Length3WordGraph is a graph built from all 3-letter English words that may be used in a game of Scrabble.
● LargeWordGraph is a graph built from all English words that may be used in a game of Scrabble.
You should get your program so that it can run on either of these files. Warning: you probably should not use DFS
to find the “word ladder” on the large word graph. The paths it finds will be really long and might cause memory
errors. Use the length 3 word graph to test DFS and BFS, and then only BFS for the large word graph.
The result will be a word ladder!!!