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CSCI 2500 — Computer Organization
Lab 10 (document version 1.0)

1. Checkpoint 1: For the first checkpoint, download the lab10.s MIPS code. Walk through
the code to understand what it does. Consider uncommenting the debugging blocks of code
to display what is in memory address $s0 at each loop iteration.
Once you understand the code, comment out the debugging output for the time being. The
problem with the given code is that the control overhead is too high, i.e., we load, add, and
store, then jump to our latch basic block. Excluding the jumps, we have 25% overhead.
To optimize this code, replicate the contents of the loop_body basic block three more times
(for a total of four load/add/store combinations). Make sure you use the correct offsets and
increment value in the loop_latch basic block. Verify that your code still works by again
adding the debugging statements.
Note that this technique is called loop unrolling.
2. Checkpoint 2: For the second checkpoint, note that we load our values exclusively into
register $t0. Thinking back to Homeworks 2 and 4, there is no reason why we could not use
more of the temporary registers. Make this adjustment in the given code by cycling through
registers $t1, $t2, etc. And note by doing so, we effectively remove dependencies that are
not true dependencies.
This technique is simply called register renaming.
3. Checkpoint 3: For the third checkpoint, we can use a technique to minimize stalls by
reordering our instructions. Note that we have a familiar (and problematic) pattern, i.e., a
load followed by an add. The problem with this pattern is that it has to stall the pipeline
since the data is not ready until the MEM stage, but we need that data prior to the ALU stage
of the next instruction. Our instruction stream therefore requires a nop instruction between
the load and the increment instructions. Reorder the instructions such that no such nop
instruction is required.
Finally, given all of the above optimizations, how much have all of these transformations
reduced the runtime for this code sequence?

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