Sale!

CS 161 Lab 8

$30.00

Category:

Description

5/5 - (2 votes)

Lab 8
Get checked off for full points of incomplete work from the previous lab within the first 10 minutes of
the lab.
In this lab, you can form a group of 2-3 individuals. You must be checked off together as a group at the end of the
lab. Although you perform tasks as a group, ensure that you understand the work and ask questions to TAs as needed.
(4 pts) Debugging using a debugger
The purpose of a debugger such as GDB is to allow you to see what is going on “inside” another program while it
executes — or what another program was doing at the moment it crashed.
GDB can do four main kinds of things (plus other things in support of these) to help you catch bugs in the act:
•Start your program, specifying anything that might affect its behavior.
•Make your program stop on specified conditions.
•Examine what has happened, when your program has stopped.
•Change things in your program, so you can experiment with correcting the effects of one bug and go
on to learn about another.
GDB Manpage is a good source of information, i.e. man gdb.
The first thing you need to do to start debugging your program is to compile it with debugging symbols, this is
accomplished with the -g flag:
g++ filename.cpp -g -o filename
Let’s start with a simple program that gets a line of text from the user, and prints it out backwards to the screen:
#include <iostream>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;
int main(){
char input[50];
int i = 0;
cin >> input;
for(i = strlen(input); i >= 0; i–){
cout << input[i];
}
cout << endl;
return 0;
}
1
compile and start the debugger with:
g++ debug.cpp -g -o debug
gdb ./debug (start another session which will run gdb)
GDB Execution debug.cpp
Here is a mini tutorial for the 7 main commands that you will mostly be using in your debugging session
1. break
2. run
3. print
4. next & step
5. continue
6. display & watch
7. where (or bt)
1. The break Command:
gdb will remember the line numbers of your source file. This will let us easily set up break points in the
program. A break point, is a line in the code where you want execution to pause. Once you pause execution you
will be able to examine variables, and walk through the program, and other things of that nature.
Continuing with our example lets set up a break point at line 9, just before we declare int i = 0;
(gdb) break 9
Breakpoint 1 at 0x400923: file debug.cpp, line 9.
(gdb)
2. The run Command:
run will begin initial execution of your program. This will run your program as you normally would outside of
the debugger, until it reaches a break point line. This means if you need to pass any command line arguments, you
list them after run just as they would be listed after the program name on the command line.
2
At this moment, you will have been returned to the gdb command prompt. (Using run again after your
program has been started, will ask to terminate the current execution and start over)
From our example:
Starting program: ./a.out
Breakpoint 1, main (argc=1, argv=0x7fffffffd008)
at debug.cpp:9
9 int i = 0;
3. The print Command:
print will let you see the values of data in your program. It takes an argument of the variable name. In
our example, we are paused right before we declare and initialize i. Let’s look what the value of i is now:
(gdb) print i
$1 = -1075457232
(gdb)
i contains garbage, we haven’t put anything into it yet.
4. The next and step Commands:
next and step do basically the same thing, step line by line through the program. The difference is that
next steps over a function call, and step will step into it.
Now in our example, we will step to the beginning of the next instruction
(gdb) step
11 cin >> input;
(gdb)
before we execute the cin, let’s check the value of i again:
(gdb) print i
$2 = 0
(gdb)
i is now equal to 0, like it should be.
Now, let’s use next to move into the cin statement:
(gdb) next
3
What happened here? We weren’t returned to the gdb prompt. Well the program is inside cin, waiting for us
to input something.
Input string here, and press enter.
5. The continue Command
continue will pick up execution of the program after it has reached a break point.
Let’s continue to the end of the program now:
(gdb) continue
Continuing.
olleh
[Inferior 1 (process 29333) exited normally]
(gdb)
Here we’ve reached the end of our program, you can see that it printed in reverse “input”, which is what was fed to
cin.
6. The display and watch Commands:
display will show a variable’s contents at each step of the way in your program. Let’s start over in
our example. Delete the breakpoint at line 6
(gdb) del break 1
This deletes our first breakpoint at line 9. You can also clear all breakpoints w/ clear.
Now, let’s set a new breakpoint at line 14, the cout statement inside the for loop
(gdb) break 14
Breakpoint 2 at 0x40094c: file debug.cpp, line 14.
(gdb)
Run the program again, and enter the input. When it returns to the gdb command prompt, we will
display input[i] and watch it through the for loop with each next or breakpoint.
Breakpoint 2, main (argc=1, argv=0x7fffffffd008)
at debug.cpp:14
14 cout << input[i];
(gdb) display input[i]
1: input[i] = 0 ‘\0’
(gdb) next
4
13 for(i=strlen(input);i>=0;i–) {
1: input[i] = 0 ‘\0’
(gdb) next
Breakpoint 2, main (argc=1, argv=0x7fffffffd008)
at debug.cpp:14
14 cout << input[i];
1: input[i] = 111 ‘o’
(gdb) next
13 for(i=strlen(input);i>=0;i–) {
1: input[i] = 111 ‘o’
(gdb) next
Here we stepped through the loop, always looking at what input[i] was equal to.
We can also watch a variable, which allows us to see the contents at any point when the memory changes.
(gdb) watch input
Watchpoint 2: input
(gdb) continue
Continuing.
hello
Watchpoint 2: input
Old value =
“\030\320\377\377\377\177\000\000\065\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\210\373\240\0
31 \065\000\000\000\360\[email protected]”, ‘\000’ <repeats 13 times>,
“0\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\000”, <incomplete sequence
\320> New value =
“h\320\377\377\377\177\000\000\065\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\210\373\240\031\
06 5\000\000\000\360\[email protected]”, ‘\000’ <repeats 13 times>,
“0\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\000”, <incomplete sequence \320>
0x000000352067b82a in std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char>
>& std::operator>><char, std::char_traits<char>
>(std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char> >&, char*) () from
/usr/lib64/libstdc++.so.6
(gdb) continue
Continuing.
Watchpoint 2: input
Old value =
“h\320\377\377\377\177\000\000\065\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\210\373\240\031\
06 5\000\000\000\360\[email protected]”, ‘\000’ <repeats 13 times>,
“0\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\000”, <incomplete sequence
\320> New value =
“he\377\377\377\177\000\000\065\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\210\373\240\031\065
5
\0 00\000\000\360\[email protected]”, ‘\000’ <repeats 13 times>,
“0\[email protected]\000\000\000\000\000\000”, <incomplete sequence \320>
0x000000352067b82a in std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char>
>& std::operator>><char, std::char_traits<char>
>(std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char> >&, char*) () from
/usr/lib64/libstdc++.so.6
Type q and hit enter to exit from GDB.
7. The where (or bt) Command
The where (or bt) command prints a backtrace of all stack frames. This may not make much sense but it is
useful in seeing where our program crashes.
Let’s modify our program just a little so that it will crash:
#include <iostream>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;
int main(){
char *input = NULL;
int i = 0;
cin >> input;
for(i = strlen(input); i >= 0; i–){
cout << input[i];
}
cout << endl;
return 0;
}
Here we’ve changed input to be a pointer to a char and set it to NULL to make sure it doesn’t point anywhere until
we set it. Recompile and run gdb on it again to see what happens when it crashes.
(gdb) r
Starting program:
/nfs/farm/classes/eecs/fall2013/eecs161-001/private/a.out hello
Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x000000352067b826 in std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char>
>& std::operator>><char, std::char_traits<char>
>(std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char> >&, char*) () from
/usr/lib64/libstdc++.so.6
6
(gdb) where
#0 0x000000352067b826 in std::basic_istream<char, std::char_traits<char> >&
std::operator>><char, std::char_traits<char> >(std::basic_istream<char,
std::char_traits<char> >&, char*) () from /usr/lib64/libstdc++.so.6 #1
0x0000000000400943 in main (argc=1,
argv=0x7fffffffd008) at debug.cpp:11
(gdb)
We see at the bottom, two frames. #1 is the top most frame and shows where we crashed. Use the up command to
move up the stack.
(gdb) up
#1 0x0000000000400943 in main (argc=1,
argv=0x7fffffffd008) at debug.cpp:11
11 cin >> input;
(gdb)
Here we see line #11
11 cin >> input;
The line where we crashed.
Here are some more tutorials for gdb:
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~gilpin/tutorial/
https://sourceware.org/gdb/current/onlinedocs/gdb/
(6 pts) Implementing 1-D arrays in assignment 3
Task 1 (3 pts): Create a C-style string that will hold a sentence/paragraph inputted by the user. • You can
make a static array for this, but make sure your getline has the appropriate length. • Use
cin.getline(array_name, num_chars_to_read)for C-style strings. • What do you think
may happen if you enter more characters than specified by num_chars_to_read in
cin.getline()? The code below may help this problem.
if (cin.fail()) {
cin.ignore(256,’\n’); //get rid of everything leftover
cin.clear(); //reset the failbit for the next cin
}
7
Task 2 (3 pts): Create an array of C++ strings for any N number of words that the user wants to search for and
read those words from the user.
● Ask the user how many words they want to search for.
● Create an array of that many words
● Read each word from the user. Remember, you would use getline for C++
strings. getline(cin, word_array_name[i]);
You need to have a main function that asks for a sentence/paragraph and for the N words. After getting inputs
from the user, print out both arrays to check if they are working properly. Remember to check memory leaks as
well.
If any of your functions are more than 15 lines of code, what can you do to make it smaller? If you are
having difficulty thinking of how to make it smaller, then ask a TA to help you!!!
Show your completed work and answers to the TAs for credit. You will not get points if you do not
get checked off
8