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CS2030 Lab #8: Logger

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CS2030 Lab #8: Logger
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Task Content
Logging
Topic Coverage
Generics
Function
Lambda expression
map and flatMap
Problem Description
In this lab, we are going to write an immutable Logger class to handle the context of logging changes to values while
they are operated upon. We do this so as to separate the code for logging from the main business logic.
A sample logging session is shown below:
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5)
$13 ==> Logger[5]
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5).map(x -> x + 1)
$14 ==> Logger[6]
5 -> 6
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5).map(x -> x + 1).map(x -> x * 2)
$15 ==> Logger[12]
5 -> 6
6 -> 12
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5).map(x -> x + 1).map(x -> x * 2).map(x -> x)
$16 ==> Logger[12]
5 -> 6
6 -> 12
12 -> 12
Notice that the log of value changes are tracked and output in the form
old_value -> new_value
Task
Your task is to write a Logger class that provides the operations of, map, flatMap and test.
You will also write several applications using the Logger as solutions to classic computation problems. This would
allow us to look at the values changes when solving each problem.
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This task is divided into several levels. Read through all the levels to see how the different levels are related.
Level 1
Start by writing a static method of within the class Logger that wraps a value within it. Include the toString()
method to output the Logger containing the value.
To ensure that a valid Logger is created, the of method should throw an IllegalArgumentException when the
argument is null or another Logger.
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5)
$.. ==> Logger[5]
jshell> Logger<String> hello = Logger.<String>of(“Hello”)
hello ==> Logger[Hello]
jshell> try { Logger.<Object>of(hello); }
…> catch (Exception e) { System.out.println(e); }
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: already a Logger
jshell> try { Logger.<Integer>of(null); }
…> catch (Exception e) { System.out.println(e); }
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: argument cannot be null
Level 2
Include a map method that takes in a function Function<? super T, ? extends U>, applies it on the value, and
wraps the result in another Logger. Modify the toString() method to include the output of the value changes over
all map operations.
jshell> Logger<Integer> five = Logger.<Integer>of(5)
five ==> Logger[5]
jshell> five.map(x -> x + 1)
$.. ==> Logger[6]
5 -> 6
jshell> five
five ==> Logger[5]
jshell> five.map(x -> x + 1).map(x -> x – 1)
$.. ==> Logger[5]
5 -> 6
6 -> 5
jshell> five.map(x -> x + 1).map(x -> x – 1).map(x -> x)
$.. ==> Logger[5]
5 -> 6
6 -> 5
5 -> 5
jshell> Logger.<String>of(“hello”).map(x -> x.length())
$.. ==> Logger[5]
hello -> 5
jshell> Logger.<String>of(“hello”).map(x -> x.length()).map(x -> x * 2)
$.. ==> Logger[10]
hello -> 5
5 -> 10
jshell> Function<Object, Integer> f = x -> x.hashCode()
f ==> $Lambda$26/[email protected]
jshell> Logger.<String>of(“hello”).map(f)
$.. ==> Logger[99162322]
hello -> 99162322
jshell> Function<String, Integer> g = x -> x.length();
g ==> $Lambda$27/[email protected]
jshell> Logger<Number> lognum = Logger.<String>of(“hello”).map(g)
lognum ==> Logger[5]
hello -> 5
26/11/2021, 03:12 CodeCrunch
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Level 3
Write the flatMap method that takes a function Function<? super T, ? extends Logger<? extends U>>,
applies it on the value and wraps the result in another Logger. In particular, note the sequence of value changes being
output.
jshell> Logger<Integer> five = Logger.<Integer>of(5)
five ==> Logger[5]
jshell> five.flatMap(x -> Logger.of(x + 1))
$.. ==> Logger[6]
jshell> five.map(x -> x + 2).map(x -> x * 10)
$.. ==> Logger[70]
5 -> 7
7 -> 70
jshell> five.flatMap(x -> Logger.of(x).map(y -> y + 2)).
…> flatMap(y -> Logger.of(y).map(z -> z * 10))
$.. ==> Logger[70]
5 -> 7
7 -> 70
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5).
…> flatMap(x -> Logger.of(x).
…> map(y -> y + 2).
…> flatMap(y -> Logger.of(y).map(z -> z * 10)))
$.. ==> Logger[70]
5 -> 7
7 -> 70
jshell> Function<Object, Logger<Integer>> f = x -> Logger.<Object>of(x).map(y -> y.hashCod
f ==> $Lambda$29/[email protected]
jshell> Logger.of(“hello”).flatMap(f)
$.. ==> Logger[99162322]
hello -> 99162322
jshell> Function<String, Logger<Integer>> g = x -> Logger.<String>of(x).map(y -> y.length
g ==> $Lambda$31/[email protected]
jshell> Logger<Number> lognum = Logger.<String>of(“hello”).flatMap(g)
lognum ==> Logger[5]
hello -> 5
Level 4
Include an equals(Object) method that returns true if the argument Logger object is the same as this Logger, or
false otherwise. Two loggers are equal if and only if both the wrapped value as well as the logs are the same.
jshell> Logger<Integer> five = Logger.<Integer>of(5)
five ==> Logger[5]
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5).equals(five)
$.. ==> true
jshell> Logger.<Integer>of(5).map(x -> x).equals(five)
$.. ==> false
jshell> five.equals(five)
$.. ==> true
jshell> five.equals(5)
$.. ==> false
jshell> Function<Integer,Logger<Integer>> f = x -> Logger.of(x).map(y -> y + 2);
f ==> $Lambda$18/[email protected]
jshell> Function<Integer,Logger<Integer>> g = x -> Logger.of(x).map(y -> y * 2);
g ==> $Lambda$19/[email protected]
jshell> Logger.of(5).flatMap(f).equals(f.apply(5)) // left identity
$.. ==> true
26/11/2021, 03:12 CodeCrunch
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jshell> five.flatMap(x -> Logger.of(x)).equals(five) // right identity
$.. ==> true
jshell> five.flatMap(f).flatMap(g).equals(
…> five.flatMap(x -> f.apply(x).flatMap(g)))
$.. ==> true
jshell> five.flatMap(f).flatMap(g).equals(
…> five.flatMap(x -> f.apply(x).flatMap(g))) // associativity
$.. ==> true
Level 5
Let’s write some applications using JShell that makes use of our Logger so as to observe how the values changes
over the course computation. Save your methods in the file level5.jsh.
Define an add(Logger<Integer> a, int b) method that returns the result of a added to b wrapped in a Logger
that preserves the log of all operations of a, as well as the addition to b.
jshell> add(Logger.<Integer>of(5), 6)
$.. ==> Logger[11]
5 -> 11
jshell> add(Logger.<Integer>of(5).map(x -> x * 2), 6)
$.. ==> Logger[16]
5 -> 10
10 -> 16
The sum of non-negative integers from 0 to n (inclusive of both) can be computed recursively using
int sum(int n) {
if (n == 0) {
return 0;
} else {
return sum(n – 1) + n;
}
}
Redefine the above method such that it returns the result wrapped in a Logger. You may find the above add method
useful.
jshell> sum(0)
$.. ==> Logger[0]
jshell> sum(5)
$.. ==> Logger[15]
0 -> 1
1 -> 3
3 -> 6
6 -> 10
10 -> 15
The Collatz conjecture (or the 3n+1 Conjecture) is a process of generating a sequence of numbers starting with a
positive integer that seems to always end with 1.
int f(int n) {
if (n == 1) {
return 1;
} else if (n % 2 == 0) {
return f(n / 2);
} else {
return f(3 * n + 1);
}
}
Write the function f that takes in n and returns a Logger<Integer> that wraps around the final value, with a log of
the value changes over time. You should include a test method in the Logger
Logger<T> test(Predicate<? super T> pred, Logger<T> trueLogger, Logger<T> falseLogger)
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that takes in a Predicate and two loggers, and returns the former or latter Logger depending on whether pred is
evaluated to true or false.
jshell> Logger<Integer> five = Logger.<Integer>of(5)
five ==> Logger[5]
jshell> five.test(x -> x == 5, five.map(x -> x + 1), five.map(x -> x – 1))
$.. ==> Logger[6]
5 -> 6
jshell> five.map(x -> x + 1).test(x -> x == 5, five.map(x -> x + 1), five.map(x -> x – 1)
$.. ==> Logger[4]
5 -> 4
jshell> five.map(x -> x + 1).
…> test(x -> x == 5,
…> five.map(x -> { System.out.println(“add 1”); return x + 1; }),
…> five.map(x -> { System.out.println(“sub 1”); return x – 1; }))
sub 1
$.. ==> Logger[4]
5 -> 4
jshell> f(16)
$.. ==> Logger[1]
16 -> 8
8 -> 4
4 -> 2
2 -> 1
jshell> f(10)
$.. ==> Logger[1]
10 -> 5
5 -> 15
15 -> 16
16 -> 8
8 -> 4
4 -> 2
2 -> 1