# CSCE 623: Machine Learning HW3

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CSCE 623: Machine Learning
HW3
Your homework will be composed of an integrated code and text product using Jupyter Notebook. In your
answers to written questions, even if the question asks for a single number or other form of short answer (such as yes/no
or which is better: a or b) provide supporting information for your answer. Use python to perform calculations or
mathematical transformations, or generate graphs and figures or other evidence that explain how you determined the
This homework explores cross-validation. You will be working with synthetic data. This homework is inspired by
problem 8 from Chapter 5 in your text.
Each step listed below should correspond to python code and/or text in your report and code files, and the step number
should be clearly indicated in both the code and your report.
Instructor provided code:
0. Two helper functions are provided below
The first generates datasets. You can call it in later code chunks. Note that in this data, x is a predictor / feature and y
is a response variable.
def makeData(myseed=1, quantity = 100):
np.random.seed(myseed)
x = np.random.uniform(low=-2.,high=2.,size=quantity)
y = x – 2 * (x ** 2) + np.random.normal(size=quantity, scale=2.0)
df = pd.DataFrame({‘x’: x, ‘y’: y})
return(df)
This second helper function generates a polynomial design matrix from a single feature vector x. The returned matrix
X contains columns of x**0, x**1, … x**p where p is the desired highest order of the polynomial. Note that since it
returns a design matrix, the columns correspond to 0 through p
def polyDesignMatrix(x, p):
x = np.array(x)
X = np.transpose(np.vstack((x**k for k in range(p+1))))
return(X)
STUDENT CODE – include your code in the code cells following the step numbers in the ipython notebook
Make & explore the data:
1. Call the function to make a dataset: df1=makeData(). Answer the following questions: How many
observations? How many features/predictors? Determine and display the value of n (count the observations) and the
value for p (count the predictors (features)) in this dataset
2. Create a scatterplot of X against Y. Describe the shape of the data. What kind of relationship will fit the data?
Linear? Polynomial (and if so, what order of polynomial)? Form an official hypothesis about the best order model
and state it in a markdown cell.
Implement OLS coefficient determination and prediction
3. Define two functions.
The first function computes the coefficients for ordinary least squares from a design matrix X and the response
variable y. The signature for the function is getOLScoefficients(X, y). Note that the first column in a
design matrix should be a column of ones in order to properly fit the intercept term.
The second function computes the predictions (yhat) from a design matrix and a set of coefficients. The signature for
this function is getOLSpredictions(X, betas). The function should return a column vector of predictions,
one for each row in X
Cross Validation (inspired by problem 8)
LOOCV:
4. Define a function to run LOOCV to return cross-validation performance on an OLS regression model with polynomial
terms. The signature of a call to this function is LOOCVerr(df, modelOrder), where the dataset is df and the
maximum term order is defined by modelOrder. This function should return a vector of n cross validation error
values (squared error terms) that result from n repetitions of training the model on all but the ith observation and
predicting on the ith observation.
For example, if modelOrder = 3, then your function will first obtain a design matrix X produced by
polyDesignMatrix on the data feature x (n rows by 4 columns), and then run LOOCV on an OLS regression
model for y=0+1x+2x
2+3x
3 using the X & Y data from df. Since df contains n observations then LOOCVerr
will return a vector of length n containing the n individual squared error terms (actual y minus predicted y)
2
.
The goal of this step is for you to write code which manages the cross validation. Call the functions to fit OLS
coefficients and make predictions you wrote earlier from within LOOCVerr, and write your own LOOCV crossvalidation code to produce your results.
5. Using df1 (where you ran makeData with a default seed value of 1) build a for-loop to run LOOCV to generate
error vectors using modelOrder values from 1 through 7 (the highest order term in an order-7 model will be x7
).
LOOCV will build and return squared error vectors for 7 separate models which were evaluated with linear,
6. Compute the MSEs from the error vectors and plot the MSE results from your LOOCV on models of order 1 through
7. This plot should have the model order on the x axis and mean squared error on the y axis (MSE is the mean of the
squared values of the error terms on the y axis). Determine the model order with the minimum cross-validation MSE
and indicate the minimizing model order on the plot & report it, along with the MSE for that model. Indicate whether
or not the best order model matched your hypothesis in Step 2 and explain any differences.
Other Validation Methods:
7. Build another function to perform validation using the “validation set approach” described in ISLR section 5.1.1
where a randomly-selected half of the dataset is used for training, and the remaining portion is used for validation.
Your function should have the signature VALSETerr(df,modelOrder,splitseed) and it should return a
SINGLE MSE value of the prediction quality on the validation set. The randomness should be repeatable, based on
controlling the random seed in the data permutation before the split using splitseed. When determining “half”,
don’t forget to handle situations where the number of observations in df is odd.
8. Build another function to perform k-fold cross validation as described in the book section 5.1.3. This function will
have the signature KFOLDerr(df,modelOrder,k,splitseed) and will return a k-length vector of total-error
terms. Each total-error term represents the mean of the MSEs computed on each of the k folds. Membership of the
data in each fold should be determined randomly. Hint: When partitioning the data into folds be careful to write code
that handles non-integer fold-sizes appropriately (when the number of observations in df is not integer-divisible by
k). The randomness should be repeatable, based on controlling the random seed in the data permutation before the
determination of the fold memberships using splitseed.
9. In a later step you will visualize the reliability of 3 validation methods: A) validation set; B) 5-fold cross-validation;
C) 10-fold cross-validation. Write code to compute and store the MSEs of each of the 3 validation methods (A, B, C)
for each model order (1 through 7) on splitseed values of 1 through 10. You are collecting a total of
3 x 7 x 10 = 210 MSE values in this step (70 per validation method).
10. Make 3 “spaghetti plots” – one for each validation method (validation set, 5-fold CV, and 10-fold CV). In these plots,
the X axis is model order and the Y axis is MSE. In each spaghetti plot there will be 10 lines (1 line per random seed
which controlled the data split into train/val partitions). Each of the 10 seed lines will have 7 model order points
which display the MSE at each of those model orders. For each line in a spaghetti plot, there should only be one point
marked using a linemarker: annotate the point with the lowest MSE using a linemarker (there will be one point
indicated on each line).
11. Human estimate of most reliable validation method: Using your eyes and the plots from step 10, decide which of the
validation techniques (validation set, 5-fold, and 10-fold) is most reliable for choosing model order on this dataset,
and discuss your answer & reasoning. Optional: use code to provide a numerical comparison of reliability.
12. Algorithmic estimate of the best model order: Implement code for determining the overall best-order model from
whichever was the most reliable validation method you selected in Step 11 (validation set, 5-fold CV or 10-fold CV).
Report the best polynomial-order model chosen (1 through 7), indicate whether or not it matched your hypothesis in
Step 2 and explain any differences.

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