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# Exercise IV AMTH/CPSC 663

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Exercise IV
AMTH/CPSC 663
Compress your solutions into a single zip file titled <lastname and
initials assignment4.zip, e.g. for a student named Tom Marvolo Riddle, riddletm assignment4.zip. Include a single PDF titled
<lastname and initials assignment4.pdf and any Python scripts
specified. Any requested plots should be sufficiently labeled for full points.

Programming assignments should use built-in functions in Python
and TensorFlow; In general, you may use the scipy stack ; however,
exercises are designed to emphasize the nuances of machine learning and
deep learning algorithms – if a function exists that trivially solves an entire
problem, please consult with the TA before using it.
Problem 1 (5 pts)
Give a brief explanation of the following question.
• Check file tfconv1.py.
1. Explain image = china[150:220, 130:250].
2. Explain what is going on in lines 71-72.
• Check file tfconv1 2.py
3. What does the line Xreshaped = tf.reshape(X, shape = [−1, height, width, channels]) do?
4. Explain what is set up in lines 47-53.
5. Explain lines 55-56. What do the parameters of the pool command ksize and strides do? Why is pool3
reshaped? How does the pooling work?
6. What is fc1?
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7. What is Y proba in line 63?
8. Explain what is going on in lines 71-73.
• Check file tfconv1 3.py
9. Explain how the dropout (lines 66-69) works.
10. Explain what early stopping is, and how it is implemented in the program.
Problem 2 (5 pts)
1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a very common machine learning method for dimensionality
reduction. Conceptually, describe how the principal components in PCA are chosen. If PCA is to
implemented in TensorFlow, the function tf.svd() will play an important role in the algorithm. Please
briefly describe what this function does, and why the results will be useful in implementing PCA.
2. Using Tensorflow, implement linear autoencoders on the MNIST dataset with a single hidden layer with
4, 8, and 16 nodes. Select two test examples of your results. Compare the results of your autoencoder
with the original images. Include in your report both the original images and the reconstructed images
(there should be 8 images in total). Save your code as prob3 2.py.
3. Describe the similarity between PCA and an autoencoder.
4. What is the difference between a convolutional autoencoder and linear autoencoder?
5. What similarities and differences are there between a denoising autoencoder and a variational autoencoder?
Problem 3 (10 pts)
Implement an LSTM autoencoder to learn your own word embeddings:
Fill in the TODOs in rnn.py to train your own LSTM and learn word embeddings for a custom text file of
1. TODO 1: Choose any text you would like and put it into a file in your working directory. Put the
name of the file into the variable in this line.
2. TODO 2: Create an embedding matrix with random initial values, using any initializing function you
would like. This matrix has a row for each word in the vocabulary, with each row containing a learnable
embedding of size EMBEDDING SIZE. Create a TensorFlow object to look up the embedding value
for each token in x. Hint: read about tf.nn.embedding lookup.
3. TODO 3: Define an LSTM model for an encoder that takes the input embeddings you created in the
previous step and produces a final state. There are many possible ways to do this, but some useful
functions might be: dynamic rnn, LSTMStateTuple, LSTMCell, and MultiRNNCell.
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4. TODO 4: Define an LSTM model for a decoder that takes the final state of your encoder and produces
a sequence of outputs that will be trained to reproduce the original sequence. You should be able to
reuse much or all of the code from the previous part.
5. TODO 5: Plot the word embeddings with the given code. You are able to adjust the plotting parameters
to suit your needs for making a compelling visualization. Discuss what you notice in your embeddings.
For example, using the introduction to Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species as a text file, I
obtain this embedding:
Since this is too crowded to interpret, we’ve provided code to randomly select words to plot as long as
there is space:
Either use this code multiple times or create your own code to obtain a visualization(s) that facilitates
allows you to learn something about your data.
References
 “The scipy stack specification.” [Online]. Available: https://www.scipy.org/stackspec.html
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