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Homework 4: Linux GPIO Interface

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ECE471: Embedded Systems
Homework 4: Linux GPIO Interface

1. Use your Raspberry-Pi to access the GPIOs.
• You will need a breadboard for this assignment.
• In addition use the resistors, LED, and wires from the parts kit.
• Download the code from:
http://web.eece.maine.edu/~vweaver/classes/ece471/ece471_hw4_code.tar.gz
and copy it to the Raspberry-Pi.
• Uncompress/unpack it: tar -xzvf ece471_hw4_code.tar.gz

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ECE471: Embedded Systems
Homework 4: Linux GPIO Interface

1. Use your Raspberry-Pi to access the GPIOs.
• You will need a breadboard for this assignment.
• In addition use the resistors, LED, and wires from the parts kit.
• Download the code from:
http://web.eece.maine.edu/~vweaver/classes/ece471/ece471_hw4_code.tar.gz
and copy it to the Raspberry-Pi.
• Uncompress/unpack it: tar -xzvf ece471_hw4_code.tar.gz
• Change into the ece471_hw4_code directory: cd ece471_hw4_code
Model 1B
Camera
Pin1 Pin2
Composite
Audio
HDMI
Power
Pin25 Pin26
Ethernet
USB
Model 1B+/2B/3B/3B+
Audio/Video
Pin1 Pin2
Ethernet
USB USB
Power
HDMI
Model 4B
Audio/Video
Pin1 Pin2
Power
HDMI
HDMI
USB USB Ethernet
Figure 1: Raspberry Pi Layout
470 Ohm
GPIO18
Figure 2: LED connected to GPIO18.
Table 1: Raspberry Pi Header Pinout
3.3V 1 2 5V
GPIO2 (SDA) 3 4 5V
GPIO3 (SCL) 5 6 GND
GPIO4 (1-wire) 7 8 GPIO14 (UART_TXD)
GND 9 10 GPIO15 (UART_RXD)
GPIO17 11 12 GPIO18 (PCM_CLK)
GPIO27 13 14 GND
GPIO22 15 16 GPIO23
3.3V 17 18 GPIO24
GPIO10 (MOSI) 19 20 GND
GPIO9 (MISO) 21 22 GPIO25
GPIO11 (SCLK) 23 24 GPIO8 (CE0)
GND 25 26 GPIO7 (CE1)
ID_SD (EEPROM) 27 28 ID_SC (EEPROM)
GPIO5 29 30 GND
GPIO6 31 32 GPIO12
GPIO13 33 34 GND
GPIO19 35 36 GPIO16
GPIO26 37 38 GPIO20
GND 39 40 GPIO21
2. Hook up an LED to a GPIO pin (3 points total)
(a) Hook up an LED to GPIO18. Figure 2 shows the appropriate circuit and Figure 1 and Table 1
might be helpful.
(b) Modify blink_led.c so that it makes the LED blink. Blink at 1Hz with a 50% duty cycle: it
should blink with a pattern of 0.5 seconds on, 0.5 seconds off, repeating forever (on Linux to exit
out of a program in an infinite loop you can press control-C). Be sure you have the timing right!
(c) As a reminder:
i. Write your code in C.
ii. Make sure the code compiles *without warnings*.
iii. Comment your code!
iv. Be sure to check for errors (especially at open time)! If you detect an error, print a message
and then clean up and exit the program.
v. If you get a permissions error when trying to run things, the easiest (though not very secure)
way to get it going is to use the sudo utility which temporarily runs a program with root
permissions, i.e. sudo ./blink_led. You can permanently give permission for a user
to access the gpio device with the command sudo addgroup username gpio where
username is your username.
vi. usleep() can be used to sleep a certain number of microseconds.
(d) The Linux GPIO interface was covered in lecture. A brief overview follows:
i. Open the device
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int fd,rv;
/* Open the gpio device */
fd=open(“/dev/gpiochip0”,O_RDWR);
ii. Set up a request struct
struct gpiohandle_request req;
memset(&req,0,sizeof(struct gpiohandle_request));
req.flags = GPIOHANDLE_REQUEST_OUTPUT;
req.lines = 1;
req.lineoffsets[0] = 23; // FIXME: replace with proper GPIO number
req.default_values[0] = 0;
strcpy(req.consumer_label, “ECE471”);
rv = ioctl(fd, GPIO_GET_LINEHANDLE_IOCTL, &req);
iii. Set gpio value
struct gpiohandle_data data;
data.values[0]=0; // value to output (0 or 1)
rv=ioctl(req.fd,GPIOHANDLE_SET_LINE_VALUES_IOCTL,&data);
3.3V
1K
GPIO17
10K
Figure 3: Switch connected to GPIO.
3. Read input from a switch (3 points total)
(a) Connect GPIO17 to a switch as shown in Figure 3. If you do not have a switch, you can instead
just use a piece of wire connected to 3.3V and touch the other end to the proper pin.
(b) Modify read_switch.c so that it loops forever waiting for keypress events: it should print to
the screen when the key is pressed and when it is released.
(c) Each time you press and release the switch it should only print *two* messages, one when the
key is pressed and one when it is released.
(d) You can implement this by polling (constantly reading the input in a loop) you do not need to use
the fancier interrupts/poll() interface.
(e) You will, however, need to de-bounce the switch in software.
(f) The GPIO input code is similar to that for doing GPIO output with the following differences:
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i. When setting up the request struct, use GPIOHANDLE_REQUEST_INPUT instead of
GPIOHANDLE_REQUEST_OUTPUT
ii. To read the value use
memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
rv = ioctl(req.fd, GPIOHANDLE_GET_LINE_VALUES_IOCTL, &data);
/* the read value is in data.values[0] */
4. Something cool: (1 point total)
Edit gpio_extra.c and do something cool. Put a short description of what you did in the README.
Here are some suggestions:
• Have the switch toggle the LED on and off.
• Have the LED blink a Morse code message.
• Hook up a second LED to GPIO23 and have them blink alternately.
5. Questions to Answer: (2 points total)
Put the answer to these in the README.
(a) Why is it good to use usleep() rather than a busy loop?
(b) How does having an operating system make life easier when programming GPIOs?
(c) How did you implement the debounce of the switch input?
6. Linux Command Line Exploration (1 point total)
Try out the dmesg program. This shows all of the system boot messages. Try piping the output into
less so you can easily scroll back and look at the messages:
dmesg | less
(a) You can use grep to search for text. Find out what your machine type is by running:
dmesg | grep Machine
Report your machine type in the README file.
(b) You can use uname to find out more about your system. Run:
uname -a
and report your kernel version in the README file.
(c) You can use df to find out how much disk is free. Run:
df -h
and report the free space on your rootfs filesystem.
(d) What does the -h option to the df command do?
7. Submitting your work.
• Run make submit which will create hw4_submit.tar.gz
You can verify the contents with tar -tzvf hw4_submit.tar.gz
• e-mail the hw4_submit.tar.gz file to me by the homework deadline. Be sure to send the
proper file!
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