ECE3141 Lab 1

Information and Networks, ECE3141

Lab 1: Quantisation

1. Introduction

Many signals of interest to us originate, and are finally reproduced, in analogue form. Sound

and image are obvious familiar examples, since they start as sound pressure levels and light

intensities at specific wavelengths respectively and are finally reproduced in a similar form

using loudspeakers or earbuds, and TV, computer or smartphone screens. In between these

ends, though, we almost always carry these signals as digital signals1

, for the many

advantages that digital gives us and which we will explore in lectures.

Conversion of these analogue signals to digital form requires sampling the signals

periodically in time (and, in the case of images and video, in space as well), and representing

each sample value as a number with finite accuracy. Here, we focus on the accuracy with

which values at each of the sample points are represented, and how we can represent the set

of all the sample values most efficiently.

Quantisation does not always involve conversion from an analogue input. It can involve any

sort of operation to represent a quantity more coarsely, as one of a discrete set of possible

values. In particular, a signal may already be in digital form but at very high resolution and

we may decide to represent it less accurately (e.g., to save bits in its representation). This, in

fact, is what we will be doing in this laboratory; we will start with signals already digitised at

high definition (large number of bits per sample) and quantise them to a lower definition

(fewer bits per sample).

In this laboratory class, you will carry out the following as you investigate the effect of

quantisation and sample representations of one-dimensional signals:

β’ Understand some of the decisions involved in designing a quantiser.

β’ Listen to the effect as you vary the number of quantisation steps used to represent a

sinusoidal signal, as well as segments of recorded sound (speech and music).

β’ Measure the SNR resulting from quantisation of audio signals as you increase the

accuracy of the representation, and compare the result with theory

β’ Develop your skills in Matlab and audio processing

Note on Matlab scripting

You should make sure you understand the Matlab processing you are doing and are

encouraged to write your own code to carry out the task required. However, you have limited

time and do not want to spend it all debugging, so example script segments are provided in

1 The most familiar exceptions are AM and FM radio, which are still analogue. All TV broadcasts have now moved to digital, and with

the emergence of DAB and DAB+, radio is moving in the same direction.

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this lab document, so you can use these to help if you want to. You can either copy and use

them, or just get hints about how to use certain functions β whatever works for you. In any

case, you still need to stitch the pieces together and add extra code to make it all work, so

you need to make every effort to understand the processes being carried out.

2. Pre-lab

Prior to the laboratory class, you must read through this entire laboratory description and

complete the pre-lab online quiz. You may also be able to complete answers to some of the

questions below which are based on theory (i.e. that donβt depend on experimental results).

You should also consider each exercise given, and think about the Matlab processing you

need to do (that is, how will the algorithm work? What instructions will you need? Do you

know how to use them?).

If you want to use your own audio clips (e.g. a short segment of music), you need to organise

this (that is, extract a short segment from the original audio) in advance of the lab class.

However, you MUST respect copyright as described in the next section.

3. Copyright

The audio clips you will be using are short segments of copyrighted content. You may use

them for your laboratory investigation, but must then delete all copies, whether original or

processed, and must not under any circumstances publish (in any sense, including posting on

social media) any version (even if it is highly distorted from the original) of these clips.

If you are bringing and using your own audio clips, these MUST have been obtained legally

according to copyright laws. The above restrictions (deleting all copies when youβve

finished, not publishing or distributing any copies) also, of course, apply.

4. Background theory: quantifying quantisation

Figure 1 shows a continuously varying 1-D analogue signal that is sampled periodically, and

where the value at each sample point is quantised. (Of course, the quantisation is very coarse

in this figure to allow the differences to be seen; ordinarily the quantisation noise would be

much smaller.)

Suppose the original analogue function is y=f(t) defined for all t. (This is the red curve in

Figure 1.)

ys=f(nT) is the sampled sequence, where T is the sampling interval and n is an integer. ys is

defined only for ππ β πΌπΌ (an integer). So, for example, ys(1.7T) is not defined; it has no

representation in the sampled domain. Though ys is a sampled signal, it is not yet quantised;

ys can still have any value within some bounds. For instance, βππ β€ π¦π¦π π β€ ππ, π¦π¦π π β π
π
.

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Figure 1. Sampling and quantisation of a one-dimensional analogue signal.

If we are to represent the π¦π¦π π in a digital system, then we must use a finite number of bits to

represent each sample value. That means that we must βroundβ the values of π¦π¦π π to a subset of

allowable output values using some form of quantisation. A linear quantiser2 is shown in

Figure 2. As a transfer function which maps the input (horizontal axis) to the output (vertical

axis), whatever value the input might have, the output will be restricted to one of a set of

discrete (quantised) values.

To make sure you understand this quantisation function, consider how the output would

change as the input varies continuously, taking on every value on the horizontal axis.

Figure 2. An example of a linear (or uniform) quantiser transfer function. This is a βuniform, midtreadβ

quantiser.

An obvious, and important, consideration is the difference between our original signal and

the quantised, approximate representation. To characterise our quantised sequence (letβs call

it yq), we could think of it as a distorted version, or an approximation, of the unquantised

values, i.e. π¦π¦ππ = π¦π¦οΏ½π π . But it is often more useful to consider it, or model it, as the sum of the

2 Quantisers need not always be linear. An example is if we wanted the introduced error (or quantisation noise, as it is defined in the

coming paragraphs) to be smaller for smaller signal levels (so the ratio of error to signal is about the same for all signal magnitudes).

In this case, the quantiser steps would be smaller closer to the origin. In fact, this is exactly what is done in telephony.

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original, exact y(nT) values, to which some noise (specifically, βquantisation noiseβ, nq) has

been added.

π¦π¦ππ(ππ) = π¦π¦π π (ππ) + ππππ(ππ) = π¦π¦(ππππ) + ππππ(ππ)

Why is such a representation useful? Because, if we can characterise this signal distortion or

noise weβre calling nq, then we can calculate its power and compare it with the original signal,

to obtain a SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio)3

. Then we can select the parameters that influence the

size of the quantisation distortion, so that the SNR is kept within defined limits.

4.1. Forms of linear quantiser β mid-tread and mid-rise

Note that one of the important decisions to make when designing a quantiser is what to do at

the origin. In Figure 2, the origin (0,0) is in the middle of a horizontal βtreadβ. The (obvious)

alternative is to put the origin in the middle of a vertical βriseβ4

, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. A variation on the linear (or uniform) quantiser from Figure 2. This is a βuniform, midriseβ

quantiser.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the βmidtreadβ and βmidriseβ quantisers?

(Hint: you can answer this simply by thinking about the plots in Figures 2 & 3. You do not

need to go searching for some extra theory.)

Midtread has less error for 1s, as the largest possible error occurs at 1/2ths.

Midrise has less error for 1/2ths, as the largest possible error occurs at 1s.

3 To avoid confusion with random (e.g. thermal) noise, sometimes we use the term SQNR (βSignal to Quantisation Noise Ratioβ)

instead.

4 In the building industry, the terms βtreadβ and βriserβ are used to refer to the horizontal and vertical components of stairs. The

analogy is obvious!

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The difference between the mid-tread and mid-rise quantisers is noted for interest, but we

will concentrate in this lab on the use of the more common mid-tread quantiser. (If you have

the time and interest, you are welcome to try both, though.)

4.2.Modelling quantisation noise5

Here we obtain a quantitative measure of the SNR due to quantisation, making some

simplifying assumptions.

Suppose that our signal before quantisation is bounded to the range βππ β€ π¦π¦π π β€ ππ, π¦π¦π π β π
π
,

and that quantisation of that signal involves setting the output π¦π¦ππ to one of M allowable

levels. If our quantiser is uniform, then the step size between the allowable levels will be a

fixed value

β= 2ππ

ππ (1)

We further assume that M is a power of 2, because that means that we can represent each

output level with an m-bit word (ππ = 2ππ), without wasting bits6

.

Now, if the step size between output levels is β, then a momentβs thought (after looking at

the staircase function of Figures 2 or 3) will tell us that the largest possible error (provided

the input does not exceed the limits of Β±ππ) between input analogue signal and output

quantised signal will be β

2

. In fact, the difference between input and output values will have

the form shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Error signal as a function of input.

Clearly if m (and therefore M) increases, then β will become smaller and so the amplitude of

the error signal will also become smaller. We would like to know not just the amplitude of

the error, but its power, because that would allow us to obtain the power ratio of SNR.

We can estimate the noise power by using a statistical argument as follows. If we are

quantising an input signal that is non-deterministic (e.g. an audio signal that could be music

or singing), then we cannot calculate in advance what the noise signal will be, but we can

deduce something about its statistical nature. We know that the probability density function

of ππππ will be zero outside the range ββ

2 β€ ππππ β€ β

2 , but what about inside that range? A

particular input value π¦π¦π π could be anywhere on the horizontal axis of Figure 4. However, if

we assume that M is relatively large, there is no reason to assume that any value of ππππ within

5 This mathematical development of the relationship between noise due to quantisation and the number of bits m used to represent

the quantisation levels is the same as that presented in lectures.

6 If M was not a power of 2, then some of the m-bit words would never be used. We could have, for instance, M=21, which would need

m=5 bits to distinguish which of the 21 possible output levels we obtain, but there would be 11 possible 5-bit words that would

never be used (25 = 32).

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the possible output range is any more likely than another7

. Therefore, we will model the pdf

(probability density function) as constant within this range and exactly zero outside it, as

shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. pdf of quantisation error signal.

To calculate the average noise power, we need the mean square error, or the expected value

of the square of ππππ. That is (substituting ππ = ππππ to keep the maths uncluttered)

ππππππππππ. ππππππππππ ππππππππππ = οΏ½ ππ(ππ)

β

ββ

. ππ2ππππ = 1

β οΏ½ ππ2ππππ

β

2

ββ

2

= 1

β οΏ½

ππ3

3 οΏ½

β

2

β β

2

= β2

12 (2)

We have an expression for β from eq. (1) that we can substitute into eq. (2), so the noise

power is

ππππππππππ. ππππππππππ ππππππππππ = β2

12 = ππ2

3. ππ2 = ππ2

3(22ππ) (3)

The final part of the derivation is to introduce the signal power. We do not have a value for

it, but we know that the power is the square of the standard deviation πππ¦π¦. Therefore,

substituting the quantisation noise power from eq. (3), the SNR is

ππππππ = ππππππππππππ ππππππππππ

ππππππππππ ππππππππππ = 3. πππ¦π¦

2

(22ππ)

ππ2 = οΏ½

πππ¦π¦

ππ οΏ½

2

3(22ππ)

And, if we calculate the SNR in dB, we have

ππππππππππ = 10ππππππ10 οΏ½οΏ½

πππ¦π¦

ππ οΏ½

2

3(22ππ)οΏ½ = 6.02ππ + 10ππππππ10 οΏ½3. οΏ½

πππ¦π¦

ππ οΏ½

2

οΏ½

We can obtain an expression with the single variable m if we can get a relationship between

the signal standard deviation πππ¦π¦ and the maximum amplitude V. This relationship is

obviously signal dependent, but we can obtain a result through measurement of βtypical

signalsβ. In particular, we find that speech signals typically have a ratio of peak to standard

deviation of about 4:1. In this case,

ππππππππππ = 6.02ππ + 10ππππππ10 οΏ½3. οΏ½

1

4

οΏ½

2

οΏ½ = 6.02ππ β 7.27 ππππ (4)

So, after all this derivation, we see that the SNR due to uniform (or linear) quantisation has

the following features:

– The SNR in dB is linearly related to m, the number of bits used to represent each sample

value

7 There are some particular circumstances when this would not be true. Can you think of an example? In any practically useful

situation, though, this is a reasonable assumption.

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– The intercept of the linear relationship depends on the ratio of peak to standard deviation

of the signal being quantised

– The slope is independent of the signal and shows that we increase the SNR by about 6 dB

for every extra bit of accuracy of representation of sample values. For instance, if we

change from using 8-bit words to represent sample values, to using 10-bit words, then our

SNR will improve by about 12 dB.

5. Quantisation distortion with a sinusoidal test signal

a) Let us start our investigation of quantisation using a simple sinusoidal test signal. In

Matlab, create a vector that represents a time-varying sinusoid of, say, 1 kHz, that lasts

for a couple of seconds8

. Choose a suitable sampling frequency to use to represent it9

. If

you generate the corresponding time vector (that is, a vector that contains the times at

which each of the sinusoid values is calculated), you will easily be able to plot one

against the other later if youβre interested to do so. Play the vector (using the sound()

command) so you can hear (and check) it. Here is some example code in case it helps:

TestFrequency_Hz = XXXX;

SampleFrequency_Hz = YYYYY;

Sampling_Period=1/SampleFrequency_Hz;

Amplitude = 1;

Duration_sec = 2;

Num_Samples=SampleFrequency_Hz*Duration_sec;

time_vec=(0:Num_Samples-1)*Sampling_Period; % Time vector

signal_vec = Amplitude*sin(2*pi*TestFrequency_Hz*time_vec); %

Signal vector

sound(signal_vec,SampleFrequency_Hz);

With reference to the last line above, note that if the sample rate is not specified (i.e. if

you just use sound(signal_vec); ), the data will be played out at a default sample

frequency of 8192 Hz. Then 1000 Hz wonβt sound like 1000 Hz! (Try it!)

b) Now letβs quantise this sinusoid to varying degrees of accuracy. Add some code to your

Matlab script to quantise (with a uniform, mid-tread quantiser) the sinusoid so it is

represented by a restricted number of levels10. The number of levels should be

determined by a parameter ππ, which is the number of bits needed to define which level it

is. That is, with m bits, we can represent up to 2m quantisation levels. (Hint: Since weβre

talking about rounding off numbers, so each is represented by a number from a smaller

set, then the Matlab functions round, ceil and floor would seem to be good candidates for

use.) You should develop some way to check that the quantiser is doing what you expect

it to do before proceeding.

Again, some example code is provided below. This expects an input in the range (-1,1)

and the quantised output is in the same range.

% midtread quantiser

>> Num_levels=2^m-1; % Note: odd number of levels

>> Quant_vec = 2*round(signal_vec*(Num_levels-1)/2) / (Num_levels-1);

8 You could carry out this and the following steps without creating an m-file, but to save you retyping and to allow for mistakes, it

would be best to use an m-file. 9You might be tempted to sample a 1 kHz sine wave at the Nyquist rate of 2 x 1 = 2 kHz. However, if you give a little thought to which

parts of the waveform are sampled if there are exactly 2 samples per cycle (the first at t=0), you’ll see why we need to sample at a

rate GREATER than the Nyquist rate.

10 Matlab provides specialised calls to do quantisation, but there is value in doing it βfrom first principlesβ, to make sure you

understand exactly what is going on.

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c) When we quantise, we want to measure the magnitude of the error introduced, so create a

quantisation noise vector, which is the difference between the original signal vector and

the quantised version. Calculate the SNR due to quantisation, in dB11.

How will you calculate SNR in dB? (That is, what is the formula and what Matlab code

will do it?)

Signal power

ππππ = 1

πποΏ½ οΏ½ππππ

2οΏ½

ππ

1

Signal to noise ratio

ππππππ = Average signal power

Average noise power

for m=2:16

levels = 2^m-1; %

quantVector = 2*round(signalVector*(levels-1)/2) / (levels-1);

quantNoiseVector = signalVector – quantVector;

Ps = 1/length(signalVector) * sum(signalVector.^2);

Pn = 1/length(quantNoiseVector) *

sum(quantNoiseVector.^2);

SNR_calc = 10*log10(Ps / Pn);

SNRVector(m-1) = SNR_calc;

end

11 In the experimental parts 5 & 6, you are NOT plotting the line 6.02m-7.27 dB. If you plot a line, it doesn’t make much sense to then

consider “is it linear?’. Instead, you have generated a signal vector, quantised it and can calculate the relevant signal and noise

power. You are asked to find (or measure) the actual SNR. THEN you will consider how well it matches the theoretical model that

leads to the 6.02m-7.27 formula, what the underlying assumptions of that model are, and whether they are valid.

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d) Now, as you increase ππ from 2 up to 16, listen to the quantised sinusoid and record the

SNR you obtain.

At what SNR value (and with how many bits m) can you no longer tell the difference

between the quantised and original signal when listening to it? Does the answer change

depending on whether youβre using headphones or speakers? Why?

m = 8

Easier to hear using headphones, as the bandwidth is larger (20Hz β 20kHz).

m = 2 m = 4

m = 8 m = 16

e) We want to explore the shape of the function that describes quantisation noise SNR as a

function of ππ.

What does theory (from lectures, and Section 4.2 above) predict will be the relationship

between SNR and m?

ππππππππππ = 10ππππππ10 οΏ½οΏ½

πππ¦π¦

ππ οΏ½

2

3(22ππ)οΏ½

The relationship between SNR and m is exponential.

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-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Plot of signal vector

signal

quant

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Plot of signal vector

signal

quant

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Plot of signal vector

signal

quant

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Plot of signal vector

signal

quant

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f) Choose a sampling rate that is a small integer multiple of the signal frequency (e.g. 8

kHz) and plot SNR against m, for m = 2 to 16.

Copy your plot here. Does it have the form youβd expect (that you described in part e, above)?

Why? (Hint: If youβre having trouble figuring out what is going on, plot the histogram of the

quantisation noise vector. This is very straightforward; just histogram(Quant_noise);

)

Slope = 5.8028

No, it does not have the form as expected. There are jagged lines because there may be other

sources of unwanted noise, such as interference and thermal noise.

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g) Change the sampling rate so it is near to that above but NOT an integer multiple of the

test frequency (e.g. 7957 Hz). Repeat your plot of SNR vs m for this case.

Consider again the plot of SNR vs m. What do you find, and can you explain it?

Slope = 6.2024

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h) Now change the sampling rate so it is a large integer multiple of the signal frequency

(e.g. 40 kHz). Repeat your plot of SNR vs m for this case.

Consider again the plot of SNR vs m. What do you find, and can you explain it?

Slope = 6.1743

Better slope than small integer multiple.

We need to sample at rate at least twice the bandwidth, not the highest frequency of

signal.

i) What have you learned about the relationship between the signal frequency and sampling

rate if our model (from section 4.2) is to be reliable?

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It cannot be a small integer multiple of the test frequency, unless a large integer multiple is

used.

j) Before we get on to investigate it, is the observation you just made also going to occur

when we quantise real world signals (e.g. audio signals rather than just sine waves)?

Why?

Yes, because audio signals have varying levels compared to sine waves that are almost

always -A or A.

6. Quantisation distortion with real audio signals

a) Now that youβve succeeded with a test signal, letβs repeat the exercise with an audio

sample. Modify your script to read in an audio file (use both speech and music). The

audio files ShortClip_Shine On.wav and 12secSpeechSample – Speeches That Changed

The World – Intro.wav are provided for you on Moodle or, as noted earlier, you may have

brought your own clips. (Note the copyright information at the start of this laboratory

description, and make sure you respect the request to delete all copies when you are

finished.) The provided files are digitised to 16-bit accuracy and sampled at 44,100 Hz

(you can obtain this number when you read the audio file with audioread). Modify your

Matlab code so that your signal vector is read from a file, and you also read the correct

sampling rate. Some example code follows:

FilenameString=[‘ShortClip_Shine On.wav’];

[signal_vec,SampleFrequency_Hz]=audioread(FilenameString);

[Num_Samples,x]=size(signal_vec);

if x>1

disp(‘Warning: This is not a mono recording’)

end

Duration_sec = Num_Samples/SampleFrequency_Hz;

Display_String=[num2str(Duration_sec),’ second audio file, sampled at

‘,num2str(SampleFrequency_Hz),’ Hz’];

disp(Display_String);

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b) Again, measure SNR as a function of m, and listen to the quantised data using sound.

Is the slope of the SNR vs m function the same as in the case of the sinusoidal test signal? Up

to how many bits of quantisation can you hear the quantisation noise? Is it easier to hear with

speech or music?

Music

Slope = 6.23

Speech

Slope = 6.01

Up to 6 bits we can still hear the quantisation noise.

It is easier to hear with music, than speech.

Were you correct in your speculation at the end of Section 5 above? That is, do you need to

be so careful about the choice of sample rate? (Make sure you can explain why.)

Yes

7. Non-uniform Quantisation (Optional)

(βOptionalβ does not mean βI stop hereβ! In terms of marks, you will not be penalised if you donβt do this

section, but you may be able to make up for some earlier lost marks if you do. More importantly, if you work

through the steps below, you will get a more solid understanding of how and why non-uniform quantisation is

used in many important applications β such as every telephone call you make! The section is only marked

βoptionalβ because if things donβt all go smoothly earlier, you may struggle to get through it in the 2 hours lab

time. If you donβt/canβt do it during the lab time, it would be a good idea to complete it in your own time

afterwards.)

With non-uniform quantisation, the step size Ξ is not the same for all input values, but instead

the step sizes are small for small input values and larger for large input values. In this section,

we will explore the value of non-uniform quantisation.

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a) Repeat your quantisation test, but this time reduce the signal amplitude by a suitable

factor (divide all the values of the signal vector by, say, 8 or 10) before quantisation.

After youβve quantised the signal and measured the SNR, scale all the values up again

before playing the audio out, so that the volume is the same as for the original signal. Use

m=8 for this test.

Is the quantisation noise more, or less, noticeable for a smaller amplitude signal? Why?

Measure the SNR, compare it with the result without the signal attenuation and try to

explain the quantitative difference. (Hint: make sure you calculate SNR using the scaled

down version of the signal, before you scale it up again to listen to; and make sure you

understand why.)

Explain the relevance of this observation to the nonlinear (A-law or Β΅-law) quantisation

that is used in digital telephony.

b) OK, if non-uniform quantisation is so good, letβs test it. Matlab provides a function for 8-

bit Β΅-law quantisation12. It is therefore easy to quantise a signal using this function, with

the code:

mu=lin2mu(signal_vec);

Quant_vec = mu2lin(mu);

Repeat the test in part (a) above, quantising an attenuated version of the input signal, but

this time use Β΅-law quantisation. Again, measure the SNR and listen to the result. (Note

that you are only doing comparisons using 8-bit quantisation, because thatβs the only

accuracy that the Matlab lin2mu and mu2lin functions operate with.)

12 It is sometimes referred to as βmu-lawβ to avoid the need to use the Greek character βΒ΅β.

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What do you notice about the subjective quality of the quantised signal, compared with

what you heard in part (a) above? What is the SNR, and how does it compare with the

result from part (a)?

Explain these observations.

Explore the quantised representation. First, inspect the array βmuβ (or whatever variable

name you used in the code shown above) and see the range of numbers present, to convince

yourself that this really is doing 8-bit quantisation. See if you can determine how many of

the possible 8-bit numbers (i.e. 0-255) are actually used in the mu vector to represent the

attenuated signal13. Compare this with the range of values used in the linear case, and also

with the range of possible input values, and use this to explain the advantage of nonuniform quantisation.

8. Conclusion

Quantisation is an absolutely fundamental and unavoidable component of any system that

involves processing real-world analogue signals in digital form (including all image, video or

audio capture systems, but also almost any other quantity we measure today: temperature,

pressure, weight, speed,β¦..). By completing this laboratory, you now have a feel for what

the effects of quantisation are, and how many bits (or what SNR) are needed to avoid

perceptible quantisation noise in the case of audio. You will also now understand some of the

important design considerations for quantisers (midtread or midrise, uniform or nonuniform).

13 Because negative numbers are stored in ones complement, this is not just a matter of using min() and max() functions. One way is

to use histograms and find how many numbers in the range 0-255 are unrepresented in mu. Or you may have a more elegant

solution?

ECE3141 Lab 1

17

Before finishing, could each student please click on the βFeedbackβ icon for this laboratory

on Moodle (all inputs are anonymous). Record the SNR needed before you felt that the

quantisation noise was no longer audible in your audio tests on the sinusoidal test tone, the

speech sample, and music (5(d) and 6(b) above). This will allow us to obtain an overall

average, with which you can compare your result. There is also an opportunity to provide

some brief feedback on this laboratory exercise.

Finally, please submit this completed report via Moodle by the stated deadline. In so doing,

please be aware of the following:

β’ Even if you have had a mark assigned to you during the lab session, this mark will

not be registered unless you have also submitted the report.

β’ Your mark may also not be accepted or may be modified if your report is incomplete

or is identical to that of another student.

β’ By uploading the report, you are agreeing with the following student statement on

collusion and plagiarism, and must be aware of the possible consequences.

Student statement:

I have read the Universityβs statement on cheating and plagiarism, as described in the Student

Resource Guide. This work is original and has not previously been submitted as part of

another unit/subject/course. I have taken proper care safeguarding this work and made all

reasonable effort to make sure it could not be copied. I understand the consequences for

engaging in plagiarism as described in Statute 4.1 Part III β Academic Misconduct. I certify

that I have not plagiarised the work of others or engaged in collusion when preparing

this submission.

β END β