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Lab 3 – Exploring the RF Spectrum

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Lab 3 – Exploring the RF Spectrum
ECE531 – Software Defined Radio

1 Overview 2
2 Software 3
2.1 Fosphor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Other Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Spectrum Exploration 5
3.1 Signal Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2 IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4 Collecting Spectral Data 6
4.1 Sweeping the Spectrum: Receiving from 60MHz to 6GHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5 Understanding Your Wireless Devices 8
6 Lab Report Preparation & Submission Instructions 9

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Lab 3 – Exploring the RF Spectrum
ECE531 – Software Defined Radio

1 Overview 2
2 Software 3
2.1 Fosphor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Other Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Spectrum Exploration 5
3.1 Signal Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2 IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4 Collecting Spectral Data 6
4.1 Sweeping the Spectrum: Receiving from 60MHz to 6GHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5 Understanding Your Wireless Devices 8
6 Lab Report Preparation & Submission Instructions 9
1
1 Overview
The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that ranges between
3kHz and 300GHz. We use the RF spectrum extensively for communications, navigation, astronomy,
radar, and more. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates the usage of the RF
spectrum in the United States. Figure 1 shows a map of the frequency allocations in the United
States. You may zoom into this map for detail, or better yet download your own printable copy [1].
Further details on the FCC frequency allocation is available at [2].
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
NAT OI NAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS & INFORMATION ADMINISTRAT OI N
MOBILE (AERONAUTICAL TELEMETERING)
S)
5.68
5.73
5.90
5.95
6.2
6.525
6.685
6.765
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.35
8.1
8.195
8.815
8.965
9.040
9.4
9.5
9.9
9.995
10.003
10.005
10.1
10.15
11.175
11.275
11.4
11.6
11.65
12.05
12.10
12.23
13.2
13.26
13.36
13.41
13.57
13.6
13.8
13.87
14.0
14.25
14.35
14.990
15.005
15.010
15.10
15.6
15.8
16.36
17.41
17.48
17.55
17.9
17.97
18.03
18.068
18.168
18.78
18.9
19.02
19.68
19.80
19.990
19.995
20.005
20.010
21.0
21.45
21.85
21.924
22.0
22.855
23.0
23.2
23.35
24.89
24.99
25.005
25.01
25.07
25.21
25.33
25.55
25.67
26.1
26.175
26.48
26.95
26.96
27.23
27.41
27.54
28.0
29.7
29.8
29.89
29.91
30.0
UNITED
STATES
THE RADIO SPECTRUM
NON-GOVERNMENT EXCLUSIVE
GOVERNMENT EXCLUSIVE GOVERNMENT/ NON-GOVERNMENT SHARED
RADIO SERVICES COLOR LEGEND
ACTIVITY CODE
NOT ALLOCATED RADIONAVIGATION FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
Radiolocation RADIONAVIGATION
FIXED
MARITIME
MOBILE
Radiolocation
FIXED
MARITIME
MOBILE FIXED
MARITIME
MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
Aeronautical
Mobile
Maritime
Radionavigation
(Radio Beacons)
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION
(RADIO BEACONS)
Aeronautical
Radionavigation (Radio Beacons)
3
9
14
19.95
20.05
30
30
59
61
70
90
110
130
160
190
200
275
285
300
3 kHz 300 kHz
300 kHz 3 MHz
3 MHz 30 MHz
30 MHz 300 MHz
3 GHz
300 GHz
300 MHz
3 GHz
30 GHz
Aeronautical
Radionavigation
(Radio Beacons)
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION
(RADIO BEACONS)
Aeronautical
Mobile
Maritime
Radionavigation
(Radio Beacons)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
(RADIO BEACONS)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
(RADIO BEACONS)
Aeronautical
Mobile
Aeronautical Mobile RADIONAVIGATION
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
MARITIME
MOBILE
Aeronautical
Radionavigation
MOBILE (DISTRESS AND CALLING)
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME
MOBILE
(SHIPS ONLY)
MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
(RADIO BEACONS)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
(RADIO BEACONS)
BROADCASTING
(AM RADIO)
MARITIME MOBILE (TELEPHONY)
MARITIME MOBILE (TELEPHONY)
MOBILE (DISTRESS AND CALLING)
MARITIME
MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
MOBILE
FIXED
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (2500kHz)
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL
Space Research
MARITIME
MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
MOBILE
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE (R)
STANDARD FREQ.
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE (OR)
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE (R)
FIXED
MOBILE**
Radiolocation
FIXED MOBILE*
AMATEUR
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
MARITIME
MOBILE
MOBILE*
MOBILE*
MOBILE
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (5000 KHZ)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
STANDARD FREQ. Space Research
MOBILE**
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
FIXED MOBILE*
BROADCASTING
MARITIME MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
FIXED Mobile
AMATEUR SATELLITE AMATEUR
AMATEUR
FIXED
Mobile
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME
MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
FIXED
BROADCASTING
FIXED
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (10,000 kHz)
STANDARD FREQ. Space Research
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AMATEUR
FIXED
Mobile*
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
FIXED
FIXED
BROADCASTING
MARITIME
MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
RADIO ASTRONOMY
Mobile*
AMATEUR
BROADCASTING
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
Mobile* FIXED
BROADCASTING
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (15,000 kHz)
STANDARD FREQ. Space Research
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
MARITIME
MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
FIXED
FIXED
BROADCASTING
STANDARD FREQ. Space Research
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
Mobile FIXED
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
BROADCASTING
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
MARITIME MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
Mobile*
MOBILE**
FIXED
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (25,000 kHz)
STANDARD FREQ. Space Research
LAND MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
MOBILE**
RADIO ASTRONOMY
BROADCASTING
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE**
FIXED
MOBILE**
MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
LAND MOBILE
MOBILE**
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
MOBILE
MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
MOBILE
MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
LAND
MOBILE
LAND
MOBILE
LAND
MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
Radio Astronomy
RADIO ASTRONOMY
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
MOBILE
MOBILE
MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
LAND
MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
MOBILE
MOBILE
LAND
MOBILE AMATEUR
BROADCASTING
(TV CHANNELS 2-4)
FIXED MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION
BROADCASTING
(TV CHANNELS 5-6)
BROADCASTING
(FM RADIO)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE (R)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
MOBILE FIXED
AMATEUR
BROADCASTING
(TV CHANNELS 7-13)
MOBILE
FIXED
MOBILE
FIXED
MOBILE SATELLITE
FIXED
MOBILE
SATELLITE
MOBILE
FIXED
MOBILE
SATELLITE
MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION
STD. FREQ. & TIME SIGNAL SAT. (400.1 MHz)
MET. SAT.
(S-E)
SPACE RES.
(S-E)
Earth Expl.
Satellite (E-S)
MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED MOBILE RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIOLOCATION Amateur
LAND MOBILE
Meteorological
Satellite (S-E)
LAND MOBILE
BROADCASTING
(TV CHANNELS 14 – 20)
BROADCASTING
(TV CHANNELS 21-36)
RADIO ASTRONOMY
TV BROADCASTING
RADIOLOCATION
FIXED
Amateur
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
MOBILE** FIXED
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
Radiolocation
Radiolocation MARITIME RADIONAVIGATION
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION Radiolocation
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION RADIOLOCATION
Amateur
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
(Ground)
RADIOLOCATION Radio- location
AERO. RADIONAV.(Ground) FIXED SAT. (S-E) RADIO- LOCATION Radio- location
FIXED
FIXED
SATELLITE
(S-E)
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
RADIO ASTRONOMY Space Research (Passive)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIOLOCATION Radio- location
RADIONAVIGATION
Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION Radiolocation
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION
RADIOLOCATION
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION
METEOROLOGICAL
AIDS
Amateur
Amateur
FIXED
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S) MOBILE
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S) MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
MOBILE
FIXED SPACE RESEARCH (E-S)
FIXED
Fixed MOBILE SATELLITE (S-E) FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
MET.
SATELLITE (S-E)
Mobile
Satellite (S-E)
Mobile
Satellite (S-E)
Mobile
Satellite (E-S) (no airborne)
Mobile Satellite
(E-S)(no airborne)
Mobile Satellite (S-E)
Mobile
Satellite (E-S)
MOBILE
SATELLITE (E-S)
EARTH EXPL.
SATELLITE(S-E)
EARTH EXPL.
SAT. (S-E)
EARTH EXPL.
SATELLITE (S-E)
MET.
SATELLITE
(E-S)
FIXED
FIXED
SPACE RESEARCH (S-E) (deep space only)
SPACE RESEARCH (S-E)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIOLOCATION
RADIONAVIGATION
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION
Meteorological
Aids RADIONAVIGATION
RADIOLOCATION Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION
Radiolocation
Radiolocation Amateur
Amateur Amateur Satellite
RADIOLOCATION
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
SATELLITE
(S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE
(S-E)
Mobile **
SPACE RESEARCH
(Passive)
EARTH EXPL.
SAT. (Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
SPACE
RESEARCH (Passive)
EARTH EXPL.
SATELLITE (Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
BROADCASTING
SATELLITE
AERONAUTICAL RADIONAV. Space Research (E-S)
Space
Research
Land Mobile
Satellite (E-S)
Radiolocation RADIO- LOCATION
RADIO
NAVIGATION
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S)
Land Mobile
Satellite (E-S)
Land Mobile
Satellite (E-S) Fixed Mobile FIXED SAT. (E-S)
Mobile
Fixed
FIXED
Mobile FIXED
MOBILE
Space Research
Space Research
Space Research
SPACE RESEARCH
(Passive) RADIO ASTRONOMY EARTH EXPL. SAT. (Passive)
Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION Radiolocation
FX SAT (E-S)
FIXED SATELLITE (E-S) FIXED
FIXED
FIXED MOBILE
EARTH EXPL.
SAT. (Passive)
MOBILE
Earth Expl. Satellite (Active)
Standard
Frequency and
Time Signal Satellite (E-S)
Earth
Exploration
Satellite
(S-S)
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE
FIXED
Earth
Exploration
Satellite (S-S)
FIXED MOBILE FIXED SAT (E-S)
FIXED SATELLITE (E-S) MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
MOBILE
SATELLITE
(E-S)
Standard
Frequency and
Time Signal Satellite (S-E)
Stand. Frequency and Time Signal Satellite (S-E) FIXED MOBILE
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SAT. (Passive)
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIONAVIGATION INTER-SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIOLOCATION Radiolocation
SPACE RE.
.(Passive)
EARTH EXPL.
SAT. (Passive) FIXED MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE
Mobile Fixed
FIXED
SATELLITE (S-E)
BROADCASTING BCST SAT.
FIXED MOBILE
FX
SAT(E-S) MOBILE FIXED
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
FI XED
SATELLITE (E-S)
MOBILE
SATELLITE (E-S)
MOBILE FIXED
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
(Passive)
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SAT. (Passive)
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
INTERSATELLITE RADIO- LOCATION
SPACE
RESEARCH FIXED
MOBILE
FIXED
MOBILE
SATELLITE
(E-S)
MOBILE
SATELLITE
RADIO
NAVIGATION
RADIONAVIGATION
SATELLITE
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
MOBILE FIXED FIXED SATELLITE (E-S)
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
Amateur
Satellite Amateur
RADIOLOCATION
MOBILE FIXED MOBILE SATELLITE
(S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE
(S-E)
MOBILE FIXED
BROADCASTING
SATELLITE
BROADCASTING
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
(Passive)
MOBILE
FIXED
MOBILE FIXED RADIO- LOCATION FIXED SATELLITE (E-S)
MOBILE
SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
Radiolocation
EARTH EXPL.
SATELLITE (Passive)
SPACE RESEARCH
(Passive)
FIXED
FIXED
SATELLITE
(S-E)
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
(Passive)
FIXED
MOBILE
MOBILE
INTERSATELLITE
RADIOLOCATION
INTERSATELLITE
Radiolocation
MOBILE
MOBILE
SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIONAVIGATION
SATELLITE
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
Amateur Amateur Satellite RADIO- LOCATION
MOBILE FIXED FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
MOBILE FIXED FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE (Passive)
SPACE RES.
(Passive)
SPACE RES.
(Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
FIXED
SATELLITE
(S-E)
FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
SPACE RESEARCH
(Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE (Passive)
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SAT. (Passive)
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
INTERSATELLITE
INTERSATELLITE
INTERSATELLITE
INTERSATELLITE
MOBILE
MOBILE
MOBILE
MOBILE
SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIONAVIGATION
SATELLITE
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
FIXED
FIXED
EARTH
EXPLORATION SAT.
(Passive)
SPACE RES.
(Passive)
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
RADIO
ASTRONOMY
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
(Passive)
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
FIXED
SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE(S-E)
FIXED
SATELLITE (S-E)
EARTH EXPL.
SAT. (Passive)
SPACE RES.
(Passive)
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
Amateur Amateur Satellite
EARTH EXPLORATION
SATELLITE (Passive) SPACE RES. (Passive)
MOBILE
MOBILE
SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIONAVIGATION
SATELLITE
MOBILE
MOBILE
FIXED
RADIOASTRONOMY
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
FIXED
3.0
3.025
3.155
3.230
3.4
3.5
4.0
4.063
4.438
4.65
4.7
4.75
4.85
4.995
5.003
5.005
5.060
5.45
MARITIME
MOBILE
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
FIXED Mobile
MARITIME MOBILE
STANDARD FREQUENCY & TIME SIGNAL (20,000 KHZ)
Space Research
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (OR)
AMATEUR SATELLITE AMATEUR
MET. SAT. (S-E) MOB. SAT. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E)
MET. SAT. (S-E) Mob. Sat. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E)
MET. SAT. (S-E) MOB. SAT. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E)
MET. SAT. (S-E) Mob. Sat. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E)
MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED Land Mobile
FIXED MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED MOBILE MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S)
Radiolocation
Radiolocation
LAND MOBILE
AMATEUR
MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S) RADIONAVIGATION SATELLITE
MET. AIDS
(Radiosonde)
METEOROLOGICAL AIDS (RADIOSONDE)
SPACE RESEARCH
(S-S) FIXED MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIO ASTRONOMY METEOROLOGICAL AIDS (RADIOSONDE)
METEOROLOGICAL
AIDS (Radiosonde)
METEOROLOGICAL
SATELLITE (s-E)
Fixed
FIXED
MET. SAT.
(s-E)
FIXED
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SATELLITE (R) (space to Earth)
AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION RADIONAV. SATELLITE (Space to Earth)
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SATELLITE (R) (space to Earth) Mobile Satellite (S- E)
RADIO DET. SAT. (E-S) MOBILESAT(E-S) AERO. RADIONAVIGATION
AERO. RADIONAV.
AERO. RADIONAV.
RADIO DET. SAT. (E-S)
RADIO DET. SAT. (E-S)
MOBILE SAT. (E-S)
MOBILE SAT. (E-S) Mobile Sat. (S-E)
RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIO ASTRONOMY MOBILE SAT. (E-S)
FIXED MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
(LOS) MOBILE (LOS) SPACE RESEARCH (s-E)(s-s) SPACE OPERATION (s-E)(s-s) EARTH EXPLORATION SAT. (s-E)(s-s)
Amateur
MOBILE Fixed RADIOLOCATION
AMATEUR
RADIO ASTRON. SPACE RESEARCH EARTH EXPL SAT
FIXED SAT.
(S-E)
FIXED
MOBILE
FIXED
SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED MOBILE FIXED SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
MOBILE FIXED
SPACE
RESEARCH (S-E) (Deep Space)
AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION
EARTH
EXPL. SAT.
(Passive)
300
325
335
405
415
435
495
505
510
525
535
1605
1615
1705
1800
1900
2000
2065
2107
2170
2173.5
2190.5
2194
2495
2501
2502
2505
2850
3000
RADIOLOCATION
BROADCASTING
FIXED
MOBILE
AMATEUR
RADIOLOCATION
MOBILE FIXED MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE (TELEPHONY)
MARITIME
MOBILE
LAND
MOBILE MOBILE FIXED
30.0
30.56
32.0
33.0
34.0
35.0
36.0
37.0
37.5
38.0
38.25
39.0
40.0
42.0
43.69
46.6
47.0
49.6
50.0
54.0
72.0
73.0
74.6
74.8
75.2
75.4
76.0
88.0
108.0
117.975
121.9375
123.0875
123.5875
128.8125
132.0125
136.0
137.0
137.025
137.175
137.825
138.0
144.0
146.0
148.0
149.9
150.05
150.8
152.855
154.0
156.2475
157.0375
157.1875
157.45
161.575
161.625
161.775
162.0125
173.2
173.4
174.0
216.0
220.0
222.0
225.0
235.0
300
ISM – 6.78 ± .015 MHz ISM – 13.560 ± .007 MHz ISM – 27.12 ± .163 MHz
ISM – 40.68 ± .02 MHz
ISM – 24.125 ± 0.125 GHz 30 GHz
ISM – 61.25 ± .250 GHz ISM – 122.5 ± .500 GHz ISM – 245.0 ± 1GHz
300.0
322.0
328.6
335.4
399.9
400.05
400.15
401.0
402.0
403.0
406.0
406.1
410.0
420.0
450.0
454.0
455.0
456.0
460.0
462.5375
462.7375
467.5375
467.7375
470.0
512.0
608.0
614.0
698
746
764
776
794
806
821
824
849
851
866
869
894
896
901901
902
928
929
930
931
932
935
940
941
944
960
1215
1240
1300
1350
1390
1392
1395
1400
1427
1429.5
1430
1432
1435
1525
1530
1535
1544
1545
1549.5
1558.5
1559
1610
1610.6
1613.8
1626.5
1660
1660.5
1668.4
1670
1675
1700
1710
1755
1850
2000
2020
2025
2110
2155
2160
2180
2200
2290
2300
2305
2310
2320
2345
2360
2385
2390
2400
2417
2450
2483.5
2500
2655
2690
2700
2900
3000
MARITIME MOBILE SATELLITE
(space to Earth) MOBILE SATELLITE (S-E)
RADIOLOCATION RADIONAVIGATION SATELLITE (S-E)
RADIOLOCATION Amateur
Radiolocation AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION
SPA CE RESEARCH ( Passive) EARTH EXPL SAT (Passive) RADIO ASTRONOMY
MOBILE
MOBILE ** FIXED-SAT (E-S)
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED**
LAND MOBILE (TLM)
MOBILE SAT.
(Space to Earth)
MARITIME MOBILE SAT.
(Space to Earth)
Mobile
(Aero. TLM)
MOBILE SATELLITE (S-E)
MOBILE SATELLITE
(Space to Earth) AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SATELLITE (R) (space to Earth)
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.6
3.65
3.7
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.8
4.94
4.99
5.0
5.15
5.25
5.35
5.46
5.47
5.6
5.65
5.83
5.85
5.925
6.425
6.525
6.70
6.875
7.025
7.075
7.125
7.19
7.235
7.25
7.30
7.45
7.55
7.75
7.90
8.025
8.175
8.215
8.4
8.45
8.5
9.0
9.2
9.3
9.5
10.0
10.45
10.5
10.55
10.6
10.68
10.7
11.7
12.2
12.7
12.75
13.25
13.4
13.75
14.0
14.2
14.4
14.47
14.5
14.7145
15.1365
15.35
15.4
15.43
15.63
15.7
16.6
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.7
17.8
18.3
18.6
18.8
19.3
19.7
20.1
20.2
21.2
21.4
22.0
22.21
22.5
22.55
23.55
23.6
24.0
24.05
24.25
24.45
24.65
24.75
25.05
25.25
25.5
27.0
27.5
29.5
29.9
30.0
ISM – 2450.0 ± 50 MHz
30.0
31.0
31.3
31.8
32.0
32.3
33.0
33.4
36.0
37.0
37.6
38.0
38.6
39.5
40.0
40.5
41.0
42.5
43.5
45.5
46.9
47.0
47.2
48.2
50.2
50.4
51.4
52.6
54.25
55.78
56.9
57.0
58.2
59.0
59.3
64.0
65.0
66.0
71.0
74.0
75.5
76.0
77.0
77.5
78.0
81.0
84.0
86.0
92.0
95.0
100.0
102.0
105.0
116.0
119.98
120.02
126.0
134.0
142.0
144.0
149.0
150.0
151.0
164.0
168.0
170.0
174.5
176.5
182.0
185.0
190.0
200.0
202.0
217.0
231.0
235.0
238.0
241.0
248.0
250.0
252.0
265.0
275.0
300.0
ISM – 5.8 ± .075 GHz
ISM – 915.0 ± 13 MHz
INTER-SATELLITE RADIOLOCATION SATELLITE (E-S)
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAV.
PLEASE NOTE: THE SPACING ALLOTTED THE SERVICES IN THE SPECTRUM SEGMENTS SHOWN IS NOT PROPORTIONAL TO THE ACTUAL AMOUNT
OF SPECTRUM OCCUPIED.
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL
MOBILE SATELLITE
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
AMATEUR
AMATEUR SATELLITE
BROADCASTING
BROADCASTING
SATELLITE
EARTH EXPLORATION
SATELLITE
FIXED
FIXED SATELLITE
INTER-SATELLITE
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
SATELLITE
MARITIME MOBILE
MARITIME MOBILE
SATELLITE
MARITIME
RADIONAVIGATION
METEOROLOGICAL
AIDS
METEOROLOGICAL
SATELLITE
MOBILE
MOBILE SATELLITE
RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIODETERMINATION
SATELLITE
RADIOLOCATION
RADIOLOCATION SATELLITE
RADIONAVIGATION
RADIONAVIGATION
SATELLITE
SPACE OPERATION
SPACE RESEARCH
STANDARD FREQUENCY
AND TIME SIGNAL
STANDARD FREQUENCY
AND TIME SIGNAL SATELLITE
RADIO ASTRONOMY
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
FIXED
MARITIME
MOBILE Aeronautical
Mobile
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (60 kHz) FIXED Mobile*
STAND. FREQ. & TIME SIG.
MET. AIDS
(Radiosonde) Space Opn. (S-E) MOBILE. SAT. (S-E)
Fixed
Standard
Freq. and
Time Signal
Satellite (E-S)
FIXED
STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (20 kHz)
Amateur
MOBILE
FIXED
SAT. (E-S) Space Research
ALLOCATION USAGE DESIGNATION
SERVICE EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
Primary FIXED Capital Letters
Secondary Mobile 1st Capital with lower case letters
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
Office of Spectrum Management
October 2003
MOBILE BROADCASTING
TRAVELERS INFORMATION STATIONS (G) AT 1610 kHz
59-64 GHz IS DESIGNATED FOR
UNLICENSED DEVICES
Fixed
AERONAUTICAL
RADIONAVIGATION
SPACE RESEARCH (Passive)
* EXCEPT AERO MOBILE (R)
** EXCEPT AERO MOBILE WAVELENGTH
BAND
DESIGNATIONS
ACTIVITIES
FREQUENCY
3 x 107m 3 x 106m 3 x 105m 30,000 m 3,000 m 300 m 30 m 3 m 30 cm 3 cm 0.3 cm 0.03 cm 3 x 105Å 3 x 104Å 3 x 103Å 3 x 102Å 3 x 10Å 3Å 3 x 10-1Å 3 x 10-2Å 3 x 10-3Å 3 x 10-4Å 3 x 10-5Å 3 x 10-6Å 3 x 10-7Å
0 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz 100 kHz 1 MHz 10 MHz 100 MHz 1 GHz 10 GHz 100 GHz 1 THz 1013Hz 1014Hz 1015Hz 1016Hz 1017Hz 1018Hz 1019Hz 1020Hz 1021Hz 1022Hz 1023Hz 1024Hz 1025Hz
THE RADIO SPECTRUM
3 kHz MAGNIFIED ABOVE 300 GHz
VERY LOW FREQUENCY (VLF)
Audible Range AM Broadcast FM Broadcast Radar Sub-Millimeter Visible Ultraviolet Gamma-ray Cosmic-ray
Infra-sonics Sonics Ultra-sonics Microwaves Infrared
P LS X C Radar
Bands
LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF INFRARED VISIBLE ULTRAVIOLET X-RAY GAMMA-RAY COSMIC-RAY
X-ray
ALLOCATIONS
FREQUENCY
BROADCASTING FIXED MOBILE*
BROADCASTING FIXED BROADCASTING FIXED Mobile
FIXED BROADCASTING
BROADCASTING FIXED
FIXED
BROADCASTING
FIXED
BROADCASTING FIXED
BROADCASTING
FIXED
BROADCASTING
FIXED
BROADCASTING FIXED
BROADCASTING FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
LAND
MOBILE
FIXED
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R)
AMATEUR SATELLITE
AMATEUR
MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
Fixed Mobile Radiolocation FIXED MOBILE
LAND MOBILE MARITIME MOBILE
FIXED
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
LAND MOBILE
RADIONAV-SATELLITE
FIXED MOBILE
FIXED LAND MOBILE
MET. AIDS
(Radio- sonde) SPACE OPN. (S-E) Earth Expl Sat (E-S) Met-Satellite (E-S) MET-SAT. (E-S) EARTH EXPL SAT. (E-S)
Earth Expl Sat (E-S) Met-Satellite (E-S) EARTH EXPL SAT. (E-S) MET-SAT. (E-S)
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE FIXED
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
BROADCAST MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
FIXED LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED LAND MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
FIXED LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE FIXED
LAND MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
MOBILE
FIXED
FIXED
FIXED
BROADCAST
LAND MOBILE
LAND MOBILE
FIXED
LAND MOBILE
METEOROLOGICAL
AIDS
FX Space res. Radio Ast E-Expl Sat
FIXED MOBILE**
MOBILE SATELLITE (S-E) RADIODETERMINATION SAT. (S-E)
Radiolocation MOBILE FIXED
Amateur Radiolocation
AMATEUR
FIXED MOBILE
B-SAT FX MOB Fixed Mobile Radiolocation
RADIOLOCATION
MOBILE **
Fixed (TLM) LAND MOBILE
FIXED (TLM) LAND MOBILE (TLM)
FIXED-SAT (S-E) FIXED (TLM)
MOBILE
MOBILE SAT.
(Space to Earth) Mobile **
MOBILE** FIXED
MOBILE
MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S)
SPACE OP.
(E-S)(s-s)
EARTH EXPL.
SAT. (E-S)(s-s)
SPACE RES.
(E-S)(s-s) FX. MOB.
MOBILE FIXED
Mobile
R- LOC.
BCST-SATELLITE Fixed Radiolocation
B-SAT R- LOC. FX MOB Fixed Mobile Radiolocation
FIXED MOBILE** Amateur RADIOLOCATION
SPACE RES..(S-E)
MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE SATELLITE (S-E)
MARITIME MOBILE
Mobile
FIXED
FIXED
BROADCAST MOBILE FIXED
MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S)
FIXED
FIXED MARITIME MOBILE FIXED
FIXED MOBILE**
FIXED MOBILE**
FIXED SAT (S-E) AERO. RADIONAV.
FIXED
SATELLITE (E-S)
Amateur- sat (s-e)
Amateur MOBILE FIXED SAT(E-S)
FIXED FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)(E-S)
FIXED FIXED SAT (E-S) MOBILE
Radiolocation RADIO- LOCATION FIXED SAT.(E-S)
Mobile**
Fixed Mobile FX SAT.(E-S) L M Sat(E-S)
AERO RADIONAV FIXED SAT (E-S)
AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION
RADIOLOCATION
Space Res.(act.)
RADIOLOCATION Radiolocation
Radioloc. RADIOLOC. Earth Expl Sat Space Res.
Radiolocation BCST SAT.
FIXED FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
EARTH EXPL. SAT. FX SAT (S-E) SPACE RES.
FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED SATELLITE (S-E)
FIXED SATELLITE (S-E) MOBILE SAT. (S-E)
FX SAT (S-E) MOBILE SATELLITE (S-E)
FX SAT (S-E) STD FREQ. & TIME MOBILE SAT (S-E)
EARTH EXPL. SAT. MOBILE FIXED SPACE RES.
FIXED MOBILE
MOBILE** FIXED
EARTH EXPL. SAT. FIXED MOBILE** RAD.AST SPACE RES.
FIXED MOBILE
INTER-SATELLITE
FIXED
RADIO ASTRONOMY SPACE RES. (Passive)
AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE
Radiolocation Amateur RADIO- LOCATION Earth Expl. Satellite (Active)
FIXED
INTER-SATELLITE RADIONAVIGATION
RADIOLOCATION SATELLITE (E-S) INTER-SATELLITE
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
RADIONAVIGATION
FIXED
SATELLITE
(E-S)
FIXED
MOBILE SATELLITE (E-S) FIXED SATELLITE (E-S)
MOBILE FIXED Earth Exploration Satellite (S-S)
std freq
& time e-e-sat (s-s) MOBILE FIXED
e-e-sat MOBILE
SPACE
RESEARCH (deep space)
RADIONAVIGATION INTER- SAT SPACE RES.
FIXED MOBILE SPACE RESEARCH
(space-to-Earth)
SPACE
RES.
FIXED
SAT. (S-E)
MOBILE FIXED
FIXED-SATELLITE
MOBILE FIXED FIXED SATELLITE MOBILE SAT.
FIXED
SAT
MOBILE
SAT.
EARTH
EXPL
SAT (E-S)
Earth
Expl. Sat (s – e) SPACE RES. (E-S)
FX-SAT
(S-E)
FIXED MOBILE BROAD- CASTING BCST SAT.
RADIO
ASTRONOMY FIXED MOBILE** FIXED SATELLITE (E-S)
MOBILE
SATELLITE (E-S) FIXED SATELLITE (E-S)
MOBILE RADIONAV. SATELLITE
FIXED MOBILE MOB. SAT(E-S) RADIONAV.SAT.
MOBILE
SAT (E-S).
FIXED MOBILE FX SAT(E-S)
MOBILE FIXED
INTER- SAT EARTH EXPL-SAT (Passive) SPACE RES.
INTER- SAT SPACE RES. EARTH-ES
INTER- SAT EARTH-ES SPACE RES. MOBILE FIXED
EARTH
EXPLORATION
SAT. (Passive)
SPACE
RES. MOBILE FIXED INTER – SAT
FIXED MOBILE
INTERSAT RADIO- LOC. MOBILE FIXED EARTH EXPLORATION SAT. (Passive)
MOBILE FIXED
INTERSATELLITE FIXED MOBILE**
MOBILE** INTER- SATELLITE
MOBILE INTER- SATELLITE
RADIOLOC. Amateur
Amateur Sat. Amateur RADIOLOC.
AMATEUR SAT AMATEUR RADIOLOC.
SPACE
RESEARCH
(Passive)
EARTH
EXPL SAT.
(Passive)
FIXED MOBILE INTER- SATELLITE SPACE RESEARCH
(Passive)
EARTH
EXPL SAT.
(Passive)
Amatuer FIXED MO- BILE INTER- SAT. SPACE RES. E A R T H EXPL . SAT
INTERINTER-SAT. INTER-SAT.
SATELLITE
MOBILE FIXED
FX-SAT (S – E) BCST – SAT.
B- SAT. MOB** FX-SAT
SPACE RESEARCH
SPACE
RES..
This chart is a graphic single-point-in-time portrayal of the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the
FCC and NTIA. As such, it does not completely reflect all aspects, i.e., footnotes and recent changes
made to the Table of Frequency Allocations. Therefore, for complete information, users should consult the
Table to determine the current status of U.S. allocations.
Figure 1: FCC frequency band allocations [1]
2
2 Software
As an outcome of Lab 2, you should now have a software configuration that is compatible with the
PlutoSDR. The ECE531 virtual machine (VM) image also has a complete Linux environment that
includes GNU Radio with gr-iio support. The VM and local MATLAB install can be used for Lab 3
and subsequent labs this semester.
2.1 Fosphor
Fosphor is an open-source, GPU-accelerated FFT and Waterfall display tool created by Sylvain
Munaut. gr-fosphor provides a GNU Radio block for RTSA-like spectrum visualization using
OpenCL and OpenGL acceleration. Fosphor’s high frame rate, great for visualizing fast-changing
signals.
The instant-gnuradio VM image includes a CPU accelerated OpenCL build of fosphor [3]. GPU
acceleration, or even FPGA acceleration [4], can improve performance significantly. The block has
been used successfully on Linux, OSX and Windows; Linux is recommended. Proper configuration
of OpenCL can prove challenging.
• Fosphor details and configuration instructions: https://osmocom.org/projects/sdr/
wiki/fosphor
• gr-fosphor source is available at: http://git.osmocom.org/gr-fosphor
The VM image includes gr-osmosdr [5], which includes the utility osmocom_fft. The instantgnuradio VM is configured so osmocom should recognize the PlutoSDR without additional arguments
required. Call osmocom_fft with -F switch to enable the fosphor display; as shown below. You
may also call with the –help argument to see additional functionality.
$ osmocom_fft -F
2.2 Other Software Tools
These tools below may be of interest for some, but are not required to complete this lab.
2.2.1 SDR#
SDR#, pronounced SDR Sharp, is a windows based SDR software tool available for download at: https://airspy.com/download/. (Note: Currently for PlutoSDR support, you
must use the unskinned SDR# build). SDR# has a plugin to available to add PlutoSDR
compatibility at: https://github.com/Manawyrm/sdrsharp-plutosdr/releases. Instructions on configuring SDR# with the PlutoSDR can be found at https://www.rtl-sdr.com/
plutosdr-quickstart-guide/.
3
2.2.2 GQRX
GQRX is a SDR software package derived from GNU Radio and available at http://gqrx.dk/.
As with SDR#, GQRX allows visualization, tuning, and demodulation to audio of signals within one
application. Instructions for configuring GQRX with the PlutoSDR can be found at: https://www.
rtl-sdr.com/adalm-pluto-sdr-hack-tune-70-mhz-to-6-ghz-and-gqrx-install/
To use GQRX with the Pluto, choose “Other” under devices and enter “plutosdr=0” as the
device string. The device string can also be set as listed below and shown in Figure 2. Be sure to
check “No Limits” under input controls to allow tuning on the full PlutoSDR frequency range.
Device string:
device=plutosdr,driver=plutosdr,soapy=0,uri=ip:192.168.2.1
Figure 2: GQRX with PlutoSDR hardware on instant-gnuradio Virtual Machine
4
3 Spectrum Exploration
Using software defined radios to receive over-the-air signals and exploring the RF spectrum can be
an interesting and fun activity. Section 2 mentions a few of the tools that make this possible on SDR.
3.1 Signal Identification
The sigidwiki.com signal identification guide is intended to help identify radio signals through
example sounds and waterfall images. Most cataloged signals at sigidwiki are received and recorded
using a software defined radio. This can be a useful resource to identify signals when exploring the
RF spectrum.
The following references can also help determine what signals are available in your location:
• http://reboot.fcc.gov/reform/systems/spectrum-dashboard
• http://www.radioreference.com/
Figure 3: Spectrum Exploration using fosphor
1. Using fosphor, or other spectrum waterfall plot, identify at least four different modulation
techniques using received over-the-air transmissions. (i.e. AM, FM, LTE (OFDM), GSM,
etc).
2. Describe the frequency spectrum and time characteristics observed which reveal the modulation.
5
3.2 IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks
Another interesting experiment is using the PlutoSDR to observe the spectrum of wireless local
area networks within the vicinity (WLANs). Most high population density areas employs numerous
wireless communication networks for a variety of applications, such as the university wireless
network. Consequently, you can use your PlutoSDR experimentation platform to plot their magnitude
spectrum. IEEE 802.11 [6] is one type of WLAN standard that possesses a list of carrier frequencies
for a collection of Wi-Fi channels. For example, The IEEE 802.11 standard defines Channel 1 of the
2.4 GHz band to be centered at 2.412 GHz as seen in Figure 4.
Figure 4: IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi channels
1. Specify the CenterFrequency parameter of sdrrx with this carrier frequency, use the FFTs or
dsp.SpectrumAnalyzer objects to plot their magnitude spectrums.
2. Since your AD9364 transceiver supports the 6 GHz band as well, also use the dsp.SpectrumAnalyzer
to plot spectrum in the 5 GHz band.
You might want to turn on “Spectral Averaging” or “PlotMaxHoldTrace” and adjust the amplitude,
since the peaks of these wireless signals could be rather low. It might also be useful to change the
BasebandSampleRate parameter of sdrrx to adjust the frequency resolution for a better graph of
the spectrum.
4 Collecting Spectral Data
Utilizing captured data from a file source can make testing much more repeatable when debugging
issues during algorithm development. However, keep in mind that recording complex samples at
high sample rates can result in large files very quickly.
In MATLAB, data samples can be recorded using the comm.BasebandFileWriter system
object and read using the comm.BasebandFileReader system object. For more information on
these, see §5.2 in the textbook.
6
In GNU Radio, the File Sink is available to record complex samples. These samples can then be
read using the File Source block, Inspectrum, or Octave and MATLAB. Inspectrum is a tool for
analysing captured signals, primarily from software-defined radio receivers [7].
Source files for reading GNU Radio sample files in MATLAB can be found at https://github.
com/gnuradio/gnuradio/tree/master/gr-utils/octave
4.1 Sweeping the Spectrum: Receiving from 60MHz to 6GHz
The PlutoSDR is limited to a maximum bandwidth of 56MHz, but is capable of tuning from 70MHz
to 6GHz (with firmware modification). By performing a frequency sweep with a single SDR, we are
able to stitch together multiple sampling intervals to get a picture of the wider spectrum. The local
oscillator can step by 𝐹𝑠
to get each next adjacent band, as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Combining individual “tunes” to sweep the spectrum allows full RF spectrum visualization.
1. Write a script to capture the entire tunable bandwidth by stitching together multiple intermediate
frequencies at different tuned LO
2. Label some known signals on the resulting spectrum plot
Note: You may wish to use a lower sampling frequency and more LO steps due to the amplitude
variation of the Pluto RF front end.
7
5 Understanding Your Wireless Devices
RF transmitting devices are typically registered with the FCC for compliance, including emissions
test results. A devices FCC ID can be used to search the FCC database to determine some details
such as manufacturer, frequency and modulation methods. Internet sites, such as http://fcc.io/,
make searching the FCC database very easy.
SDRs and RF scanners make it very easy to record and reply fixed code sequences. For security,
devices such as garage door openers and keyless entry systems utilize rolling codes to prevent replay
attacks, where an eavesdropper records the transmission and replays it at a later time to cause the
receiver to ’unlock’.
Figure 6: This garage door opener FCC ID label can be used with http://fcc.io/ to find transmit frequency.
1. Find a garage door opener remote control, remote keyfob, or similar RF transmitting device.
2. Look up the device using its FCC ID. What is the device’s operating frequency?
3. Use the PlutoSDR to find the signal produced by the device. At what frequency did you find
the device?
4. Look at the FFT plot of the signal. What modulation is the device using?
5. What technique could you use to demodulate and convert to binary data?
6. Visually decode the transmitted bits, does the same sequence of bits repeat while you hold
down the button? Does the sequence change if you release the button and press it again?
8
6 Lab Report Preparation & Submission Instructions
Include all your answers, results, and source code in a laboratory report formatted as follows:
• Cover page: includes course number, laboratory title, name, submission date.
• Suggested: Table of contents, list of tables, list of figures.
• Commentary on designed implementations, responses to laboratory questions, captured
outputs, and explanation of observations.
• Meaningful conclusions to the lab.
• Source code (as an appendix). You may also upload source files with report submission.
Remember to write your laboratory report in a descriptive approach, explaining your experience
and observations in such a way that it provides the reader with some insight as to what you have
accomplished. Furthermore, please include images and outputs wherever possible in your laboratory
report document.
References
[1] US Dept. of Commerce, “United states frequency allocations: The radio spectrum.” [Online].
Available: https://transition.fcc.gov/oet/spectrum/table/fcctable.pdf
[2] Federal Communications Commission, “FCC online table of frequency allocations.” [Online].
Available: https://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/2003-allochrt.pdf
[3] B. Bloessl, “Github: Instant gnu radio.” [Online]. Available: https://github.com/bastibl/
instant-gnuradio
[4] S. Munaut, “RFNoC: fosphor – How to apply RFNoC to RTSA display acceleration.” [Online].
Available: https://archive.fosdem.org/2015/schedule/event/rfnocfosphor/
[5] gr osmocom, “osmocom gnu radio blocks.” [Online]. Available: https://osmocom.org/projects/
gr-osmosdr/wiki
[6] IEEE 802.11 Working Group, “IEEE 802.11: The working group setting the standards for
wireless LANs,” [Online]: http://www.ieee802.org/11/.
[7] M. Walters, “Inspectrum: Offline radio signal analyser.” November. [Online]. Available:
https://github.com/miek/inspectrum
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