Lab 7: Rate Control with Token
This assignment is due on Wednesday, 8 April 2015, 10 pm.
We have seen how sliding window flow control allows the receiver to throttle sender’s transmission so as
not to overflow the receiver’s buffer. By relying on returning ACKs to slide the sender’s window forward,
sliding window flow control is a closeloop system. In this lab we investigate the use of openloop sender
rate control. The advantage of openloop control is obviously that we don’t have to wait one roundtrip
time for ACK packets to drive sender transmission. Instead, the receiver specifies a tokenbucket filter
that governs how bursty and how fast on average the sender can transmit. Since rate control by itself does
not provide reliability, packets can still be dropped or arrive out of order.
We start with a UDPbased clientserver code with no flow control nor reliability, very similar to the
client in Lab5. The only difference is that the client takes an additional command line argument, ‐r,
which is used to specify the flow rate, in Kbps. (The reason the flow rate is specified at the client side
instead of the sender side will become apparent in Lab8.) You are provided with the full client source
code, so no client reference binary is provided. A reference Linux binary executable of the server
refimgdb is available in the Course Folder. A tarball of the support code is also available in the Course
Folder. The provided Makefile builds both netimg and imgdb. The two tasks you’re asked to do in this lab
both reside on the server. Your implementation of the server must interoperate with the provided client
code. Since the provided client code reveals partial solution to Lab5 and PA3, you will be granted access
only after you’re done with your PA3 or have decided not to complete it. As usual, you can search for the
string “YOUR CODE HERE” in the code to find places where your code must go. You may also want to
consult the PA4 walkthrough lecture notes.
Task 1: TokenBucket Filter Sizing
The imgdb server in this lab does not take any command line option. The image file the client queries
must reside in the same folder from which the server is launched. In imgdb::handleqry(), the flow rate
specified in the client’s query packet is stored in imgdb::frate for you.
Your first task is to compute, in imgdb::handleqry() the token bucket size and token generation rate to
regulate the sender’s transmission. The token bucket size should be large enough to hold at least as many
tokens as are needed to cover one mss segment, excluding all headers. If the receiver’s window, rwnd, is
larger than 1 mss, the token bucket size should be sized such that the server can fill the receiver’s window,
but no larger. You may find the macro IMGDB_BPTOK, defined in imgdb.h, useful in doing this computation.
This macro specifies the number of bytes corresponding to a single token. For example, if your mss is
1460 bytes and IMGDB_BPTOK is 512 bytes, you’ll need to have 3 tokens in your token bucket to send a
single segment. To ensure transmission progress, your token bucket must be sized large enough to hold at
least the number of tokens neeeded to send a single segment. Next compute the token generation rate,
which is simply a translation of the userspecified sender’s rate from Kbps to tokens/sec. Store the
computed tokenbucket size in imgdb::bsize and the token rate in imgdb::trate.
You can search for the string “Task 1” in imgdb.cpp to find the one place to enter your 2 lines of code for
sizing the tokenbucket filter. And that’s all you have to do for Task 1.
Task 2: Ratecontrolled Transmission
Your second task is to regulate the server’s transmission rate. You can search for the string “Task 2” in
imgdb.cpp to find the two places in imgdb::sendimg() where “Task 2” related code must be filled in. In
imgdb::sendimage(), first you need to decide what local variables you need to regulate the transmission
using the token bucket filter. Initialize your local variables. We will regulate only the transmission of
NETIMG_DATA packets. For a segment to be transmitted, there must be enough tokens in the token bucket
filter to cover the data portion of the packet, i.e., mss minus all headers.
To send a segment, you first check if there’s enough tokens in your tokenbucket filter to cover the
segment. If there isn’t enough tokens, put the process to sleep. The amount of time the process sleeps
should at minimum be long enough to generate at least the number of tokens needed to cover a single
segment. Preferrably, it should sleep a little longer than the minimum, to allow for more tokens to
accumulate. For example, you could sleep for an additional amount of time sufficient to cover a random
fraction of the token bucket size. Try to use a system call that allows for microseconds granularity in
specifying the sleep time, e.g., on Unix system, use usleep() instead of sleep(). In this assignment, we
assume that the time to transmit a bucketfull of data is negligible, compared to the time needed to
generate a token, given the token generation rate. If the transmission time of a bucketfull of data is not
negligible, we’d need to account for the tokens generated during that time also (which we won’t do). In
any case, be sure to enforce that your token bucket size is not larger than imgdb::bsize. Upon
transmission of a segment, deduct the token(s) used from the amount of accumulated tokens. Token
consumption can be fractional. For example, instead of using 3 tokens to send a segment of size 1460
bytes, you can use 2.85 tokens. The same applies to token generation: you can generate fractional tokens.
That’s is for Task 2. It should take about 10 lines of code.
Testing Your Code
Given the appropriate receiver window size (‐w) and sender’s flow rate (‐r), you should be able to specify
a token bucket filter that allows you to transfer an image file without overflowing the receiver buffer and
therefore can be displayed with no gap in the image, modulo dropped packets. A larger receiver window
means that the sender can send a large burst at once. So unlike in previous assignments, a larger receiver
window does not necessary result in reliable transfer with no dropped packets. A smaller sender’s rate not
only slows down transmission, it also slows down the token (re)generation rate. For example, on
localhost, with the default receiver window of 10 packets and mss of 3KB:
% netimg ‐s localhost: should take twice as long to complete as
% netimg ‐s localhost: and four times as long as
% netimg ‐s localhost: When connecting to CAEN from home over ADSL or cable modem, I found that
% netimg ‐w 10 ‐r 10 ‐m 10248
works for most images, just be prepared to wait 5 to 20 minutes for the image to be displayed and your
mileage may vary.
Do NOT use any libraries or compiler options not already used in the provided Makefile, to ensure that
we will be able to build your code for grading. If we can’t compile your code, you will be heavily
Test your compilation on CAEN eecs489 hosts! Your submission must compile and run without errors
on CAEN eecs489 hosts using the provided Makefile, unmodified. Your server must interoperate with
the provided client code.
Your “Lab7 files” should comprise only your imgdb.cpp.
To turn in your Lab7:
1. Submit the SHA1’s of your Lab7 files on the CTools Assignments page. (If the URL doesn’t work
for you, just click the “Assignments” item on the left menu of the CTools page for EECS 489.)
Once you’ve submitted your SHA1’s, don’t make any more changes to the files, or your SHA1’s
will become invalid.
2. Upload your Lab7 files by pointing your web browser to Course folder and navigate to your lab7
folder under your uniqname. Or you can scp the files to your lab7 folder on IFS:
This path is accessible from any machine you’ve logged into using your ITCS (umich.edu)
password. Please report any problems to ITCS.
3. Keep your own backup copy! Don’t make any more changes to the files once you’ve submitted
your final SHA1’s.
The timestamp on your SHA1 submission on CTools’ Assignments page will be your time of submission.
If this is past the deadline, your submission will be considered late. You are allowed multiple
“submissions” without latepolicy implications as long as you respect the deadline.
Do NOT turn in an archival (.zip or .tgz) file, instead please turn in your solution files individually.
Turn in ONLY the files you have modified. Do not turn in support code we provided that you haven’t
modified. Do not turn in any binary files (object files, executables, or images) with your assignment.
Do remove all printf()’s or cout’s and cerr’s and any other logging statements you’ve added for
debugging purposes. You should debug using a debugger, not with printf()’s. If we can’t understand the
output of your code, you will get zero point.
Lab 7: Rate Control with Token Bucket Filter
Lab 7: Rate Control with Token