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Project 1: The Tragedy of Othello

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Project 1:
The Tragedy of Othello

Overview
In this project, you will develop a simple implementation of the game othello, also called reversi. You will
program the general rules of the game and allow two human players to compete in a text-based version of
the game. Your game will keep track of the current player, allow that player to select a move, then apply
that move to the game board and output the resulting board. The game ends when both players have to
?pass? their turn in succession, signaling that neither can select a valid move and thus the game is over.
Game Rules
See the Wikipedia article titled Reversi for an overview of how the game is played. We will use the following
speci?c rules:
1. The game board is an 8×8 grid of squares. Each square can have a single piece that is either black or
white on that square, or it can be empty. The rows of the grid are numbered 0 through 7, as are the
columns. Thus the upper left corner is position (0, 0), and the upper right is position (0, 7).
2. At the start of the game, the center four squares are already taken by two black and two white pieces;
see the Wikipedia article Rules section for a picture.
3. On his/her turn, a player must input a square coordinate for their move, in the format (r, c) .
Alternatively, the user may choose to pass by entering a move of (-1, -1) .
4. If the board is full or the player cannot make a valid move, they must pass.
5. The game ends when both players pass in succession.
6. Black is the ?rst player to move.
7. When the game is over, you will output the winner by counting the value of the board. For each black
piece, the value goes up by 1; for each white piece, it goes down by 1. Thus a value of 0 indicates a
tie, a positive value indicates a black win, and a negative indicates a white win. Output the winner,
even if the board is not completely ?lled.
Project Organization
Your project will consist of three ?les: main.cpp, OthelloGame.cpp, and OthelloGame.h. OthelloGame.h
will contain declarations for functions needed to update the game state and apply moves; OthelloGame.cpp
will contain the implementation of those functions (see below). main.cpp will be the driver of the program,
gathering all user input and displaying output after each move. Main will also keep track of whose turn it
is and is responsible for detecting the end of the game.
Designing the Game State
You will need variables for tracking the following information. Be intelligent in your choice of types for these
variables ? think long and hard about the most e?cient implementation for each. For example,
do not use a double to keep track of whose turn it is. These variables should be declared in your main, not
as global values.
Variables are needed for:
• The game board: an 8×8 multidimensional array (matrix).
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? A 0 value in the array indicates an empty square on the board. A 1 value in the array indicates
a Black piece. A -1 value in the array indicates a White piece.
? You will need to initialize the array with 0’s in every square, then ?ll in the starting positions for
the two players.
• The current player: a data type appropriate to knowing whose turn it is.
• The row and column of a player’s move: these will be passed as references to a GetMove function.
• End of game: you will need some way to determine when the game is over according to the rules above.
Functions
The following functions will be needed and must be implemented for the game. Each will be declared in
OthelloGame.h (this ?le is supplied on BeachBoard) and implemented in OthelloGame.cpp. You may not
write any other functions except for these.
• PrintBoard: this function takes the game board array as a parameter and prints it to the screen.
First, print a header row of the numbers 0 through 7 with spaces inbetween, showing the indices of
each column. Then print one row of the board at a time: start with the row index, then print a period
if the space is empty; a B if the black player has a piece there; a W for a white piece. Example for
the initial board setup:
– 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . .
2 . . . . . . . .
3 . . . W B . . .
4 . . . B W . . .
5 . . . . . . . .
6 . . . . . . . .
7 . . . . . . . .
• GetMove: this function uses cin to read a line of input from the user representing their move, in the
format (row, col) ; then parses the line and returns a row and column from the function. Since the
function needs to return two pieces of information, it will need to take reference parameters from the
main, and then use those to store the information read from cin. This function should not output
anything; the main is responsible for asking the user to type in a move.
• InBounds: this function takes a row and column, and returns true if the position speci?ed is ?in bounds?
of the board: that is, if both are at least 0 and less than the size of the board.
• IsValidMove: this function takes the game board, and integer values for a row and column that
the player would like to move to. This function only checks that the destination is in-bounds (use
InBounds) and does not have a piece already at the location; OR alternatively, if the move is a pass
(both row and column are -1). This function does not check to make sure the player will actually
surround enemy pieces with the move.
• ApplyMove: this is the hardest function and contains the bulk of the game logic. Given a game board
array, a row, a column, and the current player, this function applies the move requested by the current
player by turning the requested square to the player’s color, and then searches all eight directions
from that square looking to see if there is a run of the opponent’s pieces to ?ip according to the game
rules. Because you can’t count on the user moving to a speci?c game location, you must use loops to
iterate through all 8 directions and continue moving in each direction looking for a run of enemy pieces.
You can assume that the given move is a valid selection for the current player. You do not need
to validate moves.
We will go over some of the logic in class, but much of it will be up to you to determine. Start
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early, get feedback from me early, and let it ?stew? in your head for a while. You won’t nail the logic
in your ?rst go, so don’t put it o? to the last minute.
• GetValue: given the board, this function returns an integer for the value of the board as de?ned above.
Your main may only call this function once.
Line Limits
I am putting a cap on the number of countable lines that each of the following functions can contain. A line
is countable if it contains at least 3 characters; in practice, this means that empty lines and lines with just a
closing brace } are not countable, but everything else is. You may not declare new functions and move part
of your function there in order to reduce your line count. You may not compact multiple statements
onto one line. You must follow the style guide for variable names while still conforming with the following
line limits:
• main function: 45 lines
• PrintBoard: 15 lines
• IsValidMove: 3 lines
• InBounds: 2 lines
• GetMove: 2 lines
• ApplyMove: 20 lines
• GetValue: 5 lines
Demoing Your Project
As noted in the syllabus, you will be demoing your project to me in-person during the lab period of the
course. You may request a demo during any lab period, and I will gladly give you feedback or pass you
ahead of the due date depending on the quality of your work. During the demo, I will run your program
with inputs designed to test its functionality and grace. I will not tell you what these inputs are ahead of
time. Should your code not meet my standard of performance, your demo will be rejected and you will need
to arrange for another demonstration after ?xing your code. Your project may also be rejected for
egregious violations of the course style guide.
Important: I can only guarantee a single demo for each individual on the day the project is
due. If you fail your demo on the due date, then you may not get a second chance that day. You will still
need to ?x and re-demo your code to get a grade on the project. Remember, you must get a passing grade
on each project, and you may resubmit as many times as it takes to pass the demo. The only penalty for
failing a demo is potentially losing more points to lateness.
Example Output
User input is in italics. These do not cover every possible test case. It is up to you to thoroughly test your
program before submitting it.
Welcome to Othello!
– 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . .
2 . . . . . . . .
3 . . . W B . . .
4 . . . B W . . .
5 . . . . . . . .
3
6 . . . . . . . .
7 . . . . . . . .
Black’s turn. Please choose a move:
(3, 4)
Invalid move. Please choose a move:
(3, 2)
– 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . .
2 . . . . . . . .
3 . . B B B . . .
4 . . . B W . . .
5 . . . . . . . .
6 . . . . . . . .
7 . . . . . . . .
White’s turn. Please choose a move:
(2, 2)
– 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . .
2 . . W . . . . .
3 . . B W B . . .
4 . . . B W . . .
5 . . . . . . . .
6 . . . . . . . .
7 . . . . . . . .
Black’s turn. Please choose a move:
(-1, -1)
– 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . .
2 . . W . . . . .
3 . . B W B . . .
4 . . . B W . . .
5 . . . . . . . .
6 . . . . . . . .
7 . . . . . . . .
White’s turn. Please choose a move:
(-1, -1)
Game over. We have a tie!
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