Project 1 — Traffic Light Controller


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CECS 346 Project 1 — Traffic Light Controller
You will need a LaunchPad, 2 sets of red/green/yellow LEDs, 3 switches (Preferably slide
switches or dip-switches), two LEDs for pedestrian lights: red and green, and resistors if
Book Reading Sections 6.4 to 6.9
Reference project SimpleTrafficLight, SysTick
Starter project Lab 4.
The objectives of this project are: 1) the understanding and implementing of indexed data
structures; 2) learning how to create a segmented software system; 3) the study of real-time
synchronization by designing a finite state machine controller; 4) learn how to use a
hardware timer. Software skills you will learn include defining data structure for FSM,
building Moore FSM engine, creating fixed-time delays using the SysTick timer, and
debugging real-time systems. Please read the entire project before starting.
System Requirements
Design a traffic light controller for the intersection of two equally busy one-way streets. The
goal is to maximize traffic flow, minimize waiting time at a red light, and avoid accidents.
Consider a 4-corner intersection as shown in Figure 1. There are two one-way streets which
are labeled South (cars travel toward South) and West (cars travel toward West). There are
three inputs to your LaunchPad, two are car sensors, and one is a pedestrian button. The
South car sensor will be true (3.3V) if one or more cars are near theintersection on the South
Road. Similarly, the West car sensor will be true (3.3V) if one or more cars are near the
intersection on the West Road. The Walk button will be true (3.3V) if at least one pedestrian
is present, and he or she wishes to cross in any direction. If more than one pedestrian
pressed the Walk button before traffic lights change, it should be treated as one press. Since
the car sensors and pedestrian button need to be on until the FSM recognizes them, it is
preferrable to use slide switches or dip-switches to simulate them. If you use push buttons,
you will have to push and hold the push buttons until the FSM recognizes them. When a
sensor is 0V, it means no cars/pedestrain are waiting to enter the intersection. You will
interface 6 LEDs that represent the two Red-Yellow-Green traffic lights, and you will use
the PF3 green LED for the “walk” lightand the PF1 red LED for the “hurry up” and “don’t
walk” light. The walk sequence should be showing three separate conditions: 1) “walk”:
green LED on, 2) “hurry up”: redLED flash, and 3) “don’t walk”: red LED on. When the
“walk” condition is signified, pedestrians are allowed to cross. When the “don’t walk” light
flashes (and the two trafficsignals are red), pedestrians should hurry up and finish crossing.
When the “don’t walk” light is on steady, pedestrians should not enter the intersection.
We would like to call the two streets plus the pedestrian three participants for the
convenience of description. When none of the three participants need green light, stay in
current state or finish transition to green. If one participant needs green, turn on the green
for that participant and stay on as long as no other participant need green. If there are more
than one participant need green: cycle through the requests servicing them in a round robin
fashion, i.e., take turns to go through green-yellow-red for traffic light, walk- hurry-don’t
walk for pedestrian. In order to provide fair chances for each participant involved in the
cycle, observe the following rules:
1. The only valid transition for traffic lights is green-yellow-red. No other transition is
2. The only valid transition for pedestrian lights is walk-hurry-don’t walk. No other
sequence is allowed.
3. If one participant starts a green-yellow-red transition, it needs to finish the whole
transition and give green to one of the other two participants.
4. When two participants compete for the green light, make sure to give each one a chance.
For example: when the current state is GoS, there can be two situations: 1.All three
participants need green light. 2. West Street and pedestrian need green light. For both
cases, the next green cannot be south street as south street just had green light. For both
cases west street and pedestrian compete for green. So a fair solution is to assign green
to one participant in one case and assign green to another participant for another case:
case 1: GoW, case 2:GoP or vise verse.
The time durations for traffic lights are green/walk 2 seconds, yellow/hurry 1 seconds,
red/don’t walk 3 seconds. “Hurry up” uses a flashing LED that flashes on for 0.25 second
and off for 0.25 second then repeat for a total of 1 second.
The system will start with green on south.
Red west PB5
Yellow west PB4
Green west PB3
Red south PB2
Yellow south PB1
Green south PB0
South sensor PE2
West sensor PE1
Pedestrian Walk button PE0
Implementation Requirements:
Implement a Moore machine: each state in the graph has a name, an output, a time to wait,
and 8 next states (one for each input value). Do not embed functionality (e.g., flash 2 times)
into the software that is not explicitly defined in the state graph. There can be no conditional
branches in the FSM engine. This will simplify debugging and make the FSM engine trivial.
You are required to use SysTick timer to generate time delay.
GPIO pin assignments for the inputs and outputs are given below:
The “don’t walk” and “walk” lights must be PF1 and PF3 respectively, GPIO pin
assignments for other inputs and outputs are given below.
You are required to use the bit addresses to access traffic lights, pedestrian lights, sensors and
pedestrian push buttons. Complete the following #define statements in your code:
#define P_LIGHTS (*(volatile unsigned long *) )
#define T_LIGHTS (*(volatile unsigned long *) )
#define SENSORS (*(volatile unsigned long *) )
Implementation Steps:
1) Design a finite state machine that implements the required traffic light system. Draw a
graphical picture of your finite state machine showing the various states, inputs, outputs,
wait times and transitions.
2) Complete the following state table. It is based on the input order: South, West,
3) Write and debug the C code that implements the traffic light control system using Keil
simulator, use the logic analyzer to visualize the input/output behavior of your system.
( 0.25s)
Outputs Inputs (South, West, Pedestrian) PE2, PE1, PE0
PB5-0 PF3,1 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
GoS 8 100001 01 GoS WaitS WaitS WaitS GoS WaitS WaitS WaitS
WaitS GoW GoP GoW GoW GoP GoP GoW GoP
GoP GoP GoP WaitPOn1
WaitPOn1 WaitPOff1
WaitPOff1 WaitPOn2
WaitPOn2 WaitPOff2
4) After testing your software on Keil simulator, you will build your traffic light control
system circuit step by step. Do not place or remove wires on the protoboard while the
power is on.
a. The first step is to interface two switches for the two traffic sensors and one push
button for pedestrian. You should implement positive logic switches. Write a simply
main to test your switches. Example: initialize the GPIO ports used for the switches,
each one of the three switches can be used to turn on/off one of the onboard LEDs.
b. The next step is to build the six LED output circuits. You shouldimplement positive
logic for the 6 LEDs. Align the LEDs in a shape that matches a traffic intersection.
You will use the PF3&1 LED interfaces forthe pedestrian walk light (green for
walk and red for don’t walk). Write a simple main program to test the LED
interfaces. Example: initialize the GPIO ports used for the LEDs, turn on all the
LEDs for a period, then turn all of them off.
5) Debug the complete traffic light control system onboard.
1. Demonstrate your system on LaunchPad: you need demonstration all cases, including just
west, just south, just walk, two of the three, and all three.
2. Submit a video or a link to your video that records all the required behavior of your
embedded system.
3. Submit a project report: follow the project report template for report format.
1) Include the following design items in the “Hardware Design” section:
A schematic and a picture of your embedded system.
2) Include a video link in the “Operation” section.
3) Include the following information in your report “Software Design” section:
a. State table for your Moore
b. State diagram for your Moore FSM
c. Software source code
4) For “Conclusion” section: provide a brief description on your implementation
experience, such as challenges, how did you solve it, what did you learn most in this
project, etc.

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