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Project 4
Assembly Programming

Grading:
(A) Project Demo [50%]: Offline
You will be graded for correctness of the programs (asm) you have coded. We will be running
offline test of all your asm codes using Nand2tetris software (Assembler and CPU Emulator). The
same simulator you will be using to check your chips in the course of this project. So, make sure to
test and verify your codes before finally submitting on eCampus.
Rubric: The rubric allocation for chips is shown at the end of this document. Each chip needs to pass all its
test cases to get the points, else you will receive 0 on that chip.
(B) Code Review/Q&A [50%]: To be held with the LIVE Demo
Code review of randomly selected chips. The questions can involve drawing circuit diagram of
randomly selected chips. Should not be difficult for you if you have understood the core inner
workings of your project.
Deliverables & Submission: Turn in a zip file in the format FirstName-LastName-UIN.zip containing the 5
ASM files(div.asm, Fill.asm and Mult.asm, lcd.asm, mod.asm), no need to submit the hack files. Also,
include this cover sheet with your signature below. Put your full name in the introductory comments present
in each asm file. Use relevant code comments and indentation in your code. Submit this zip file on eCampus.
Late Submission Policy: Refer to the Syllabus
First Name: Last Name: UIN:
Any assignment turned in without a fully completed cover page will NOT BE GRADED.
Please list all below all sources (people, books, web pages, etc) consulted regarding this assignment:
CSCE 312 Students Other People Printed Material Web Material (URL) Other
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
Please consult the Aggie Honor System Office for additional information regarding academic misconduct – it is your responsibility
to understand what constitutes academic misconduct and to ensure that you do not commit it.
I certify that I have listed above all the sources that I consulted regarding this assignment, and that I have not received nor given any
assistance that is contrary to the letter or the spirit of the collaboration guidelines for this assignment.
Submission Date: ___________________
Printed Name (in lieu of a signature): _________________________
Background
Every hardware platform is designed to execute commands in a certain machine language,
expressed using agreed-upon binary codes. Writing programs directly in binary 1, 0 sequence of
code is a possible, yet unnecessary and often error prone. Instead, we can write such programs
using a low-level symbolic language, called assembly, and have them translated into binary code
by a program called assembler. In this project you will write some low-level assembly programs,
and will be forever thankful for high-level languages like C and Java. (Actually, assembly
programming can be highly rewarding, allowing direct and complete control of the underlying
machine.)
Objective
To get a taste of low-level programming in machine language, and to get acquainted with the
Hack computer platform. In the process of working on this project, you will become familiar
with the assembly process – translating from symbolic language to machine-language – and you
will appreciate visually how native binary code executes on the target hardware platform. These
lessons will be learned in the context of writing and testing three low-level programs, as follows.
Programs
Before you start implementing these programs, make sure you have replaced the
Compilers.jar and Hack.jar files in ../nand2tetris/tools/bin/lib with the new ones provided
in this release.
Program Description Comments / Tests
div.asm Write a program to calculate
the quotient from a division
operation. The values of
dividend a and divisor b are
stored in RAM[R0] and
RAM[R1], respectively. The
dividend a is a non-negative
integer, and the divisor b is a
positive integer. Store the
quotient in RAM[R2].
Ignore the remainder.
Example: if you are given two numbers 15 and 4 as
dividend a and divisor b, then the answer will be 3
stored in RAM[R2].
fill.asm I/O handling: this program
illustrates low-level
handling of the screen and
keyboard devices, as
follows: The program runs
an infinite loop that listens
to the keyboard input. When
a key is pressed (any key),
Start by using the supplied assembler to translate
your Fill.asm program into a Fill.hack file.
Implementation note: your program may blacken
and clear the screen’s pixels in any spatial/visual
order, as long as pressing a key continuously for
long enough results in a fully blackened screen,
and not pressing any key for long enough results in
a fully cleared screen.
the program blackens the
screen, i.e. writes “black” in
every pixel; the screen
should remain fully black as
long as the key is pressed.
When no key is pressed, the
program clears the screen,
i.e. writes “white” in every
pixel; the screen should
remain fully clear as long as
no key is pressed.
The simple Fill.tst script, which comes with no
compare file, is designed to do two things: (i) load
the Fill.hack program, and (ii) remind you to select
‘no animation’, and then test the program
interactively by pressing and releasing some
keyboard keys.
The FillAutomatic.tst script, along with the
compare file FillAutomatic.cmp, are designed to
test the Fill program automatically, as described by
the test script documentation.
For completeness of testing, it is recommended to
test the Fill program both interactively and
automatically.
mult.asm Implement a program to
multiply two numbers R0
and R1, and put the result in
R2, with bit shift
instructions.
Operator: ‘<’ is left shift
and ‘’ is right shift.
Hint: A pseudo code is
shared later in this
document.
This multiplication must be implemented using
bit shifting only. Use of any other method will
not receive full credit.
Use the supplied Mult.tst script and Mult.cmp
compare file (that’s how we test your program).
These supplied files are designed to test your
program by running it on several representative
data values.
Usage of < and operators:
1. shift m to left by n bits
m < n
2. shift m to right by n bits
m n
Notice, the m and n here can only be 1 or
values loaded from register. In your Mult.asm
program, you may want to do use it like:
@tempReg1
D=M;
@tempReg2
M = M<D
———————-
@tempReg2
D=M
@tempReg1
M=1<D
(I provided an example test.asm program
showing you how this works here, please use the
CPUEmulator to run it step by step to
understand it). The program test.asm will shift
a number in register R[0] to left by the number
in register R[1] and then shift to right 1 bit each
time until it becomes 0 and R[2] stores the final
result 0.
mod.asm Implement a program that
calculates the modulo of two
given numbers a and b,
which is a%b in math. The
value of a is stored in
RAM[R0], and the value of
b is stored in RAM[R1].
Value a is non-negative
integer and b is positive
integer. The modulo value is
stored in RAM[R2].
Use the algorithm of your choice. The easiest way
to do it is to do subtraction continuously until you
find the result of subtracting b from a is smaller
than b, then that’s the result your program should
give as output to RAM[R2].
lcd.asm Implement a program that
calculates the largest
common divisor (lcd) of two
given non-negative integers,
which are stored in
RAM[R0] and RAM[R1].
The lcd is stored in
RAM[R2]
Use Euclidean algorithm here. Here is a link
showing you how Euclidean’s algorithm works to
find lcd of two numbers:
https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/compute
r-science/cryptography/modarithmetic/a/the-euclid
ean-algorithm
Contract
Write and test the five programs described above. When executed on the supplied CPU emulator,
your programs should generate the results mandated by the specified tests.
Resources
The Hack assembly language is described in detail in Chapter 4 (Use TAMU mail id to access).
You will need two tools: the supplied assembler – a program that translates programs written in
the Hack assembly language into binary Hack code, and the supplied CPU emulator – a program
that runs binary Hack code on a simulated Hack platform. As mentioned above, make sure you
have replaced the Compilers.jar and Hack.jar files in ../nand2tetris/tool/bin/lib with the
new ones.
Two other related and useful resources are the supplied Assembler Tutorial and CPU Emulator
Tutorial. We recommend going through these tutorials before starting to work on this project.
Debugging tip: The Hack language is case-sensitive. A common error occurs when one writes,
say, “@foo” and “@Foo” in different parts of one’s program, thinking that both labels are
treated as the same symbol. In fact, the assembler treats them as two different symbols. This bug
is difficult to detect, so you should be aware of it.
Tools
The supplied Hack Assembler can be used in either command mode (from the command shell),
or interactively. The latter mode of operation allows observing the translation process in a visual
and step-wise fashion, as shown below:
The machine language programs produced by the assembler can be tested in two different ways.
First, one can run the resulting .hack program in the supplied CPU emulator. Alternatively, one
can run the same program directly on the Hack hardware, using the supplied hardware simulator
used in projects 1-3. To do so, one can load the Computer.hdl chip (built in project 5) into the
hardware simulator, and then proceed to load the binary code (from the .hack file) into the
computer’s Instruction Memory (also called ROM). Since we will only complete building the
hardware platform and the Computer.hdl chip only in the next project, at this stage we
recommend testing machine-level programs using the supplied CPU emulator.
The supplied CPU Emulator includes a ROM (also called Instruction Memory) representation,
into which the binary code is loaded, and a RAM representation, which holds data. For ease of
use, the emulator enables the user to view the loaded ROM-resident code in either binary mode,
or in symbolic / assembly mode. In fact, the CPU emulator even allows loading symbolic code
written in assembly directly into the ROM, in which case the emulator translates the loaded code
into binary code on the fly. This utility seems to render the supplied assembler unnecessary, but
this is not the case. First, the supplied assembler shows the translation process visually, for
instructive purposes. Second, the assembler generates a persistent binary file. This file can be
executed either on the CPU emulator, as we illustrate below, or directly on the hardware
platform, as we’ll do in the next project.
High-level pseudocode for Mult.asm
Function Mult(R0,R1){
int result, counter;
//You can create and access symbols with “@<symbol name” command
counter=<some number;
// Think about what is the correct number
result=0;
while(counter =0 ){
int16 temp1 = 1<<counter; //1 shifts left this many bits; here << is used
as a traditional symbol of left-shift in high-level languages
if(R1 & temp1 0 ) {
//Think about what does the above expression do?
result+=R0<<counter;
}
counter–;
}
return result; //Put this in R2
}
for(;;) //Infinite loop

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