Project 4: Performance Optimization


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CS61C Summer 2015 Project 4: Performance Optimization/Convolutional Neural Networks

In contrast to previous projects, Project 4 can only be done on the hive machines. We require software packages, hardware
extensions and large data sets that are not available on other machines. If you haven’t done so yet, you should set up an SSH
client (such as PuTTY) if you would like to work remotely.
Contest submission date changed to Sunday, August 9th, 2015 @ 11:59pm!
In this project, you will apply some of the performance optimization techniques that you have learned in class to the real-world
problem of classifying images using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).
The following sections will introduce you to CNNs and a high-level idea of what is going on.
How does a Computer tell a Cat from a Chair?
Image classification describes a problem where a computer is given an image and has to tell what it represents (usually from a set
of possible categories). Image classification has long been considered a difcult challenge, and a lot of work has been done over the
years to improve its accuracy (i.e., what fraction of pictures gets classified correctly).
Lately, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have emerged as a promising solution to this problem. In contrast to classical
algorithms, which explicitly encode some insight about the real world into a function, CNNs instead learn a function by being
presented with a large number of examples and adjust themselves based on these examples — this process is called training. Once
the CNN has learned the function (or to be more precise, an approximation of it), it can repeatedly apply it to inputs it has not seen
How do Convolutional Neural Networks Work?
For this project, we do not require you to understand how CNNs work in detail. However, we want to give you enough information
to get a sense of the high-level concepts. If you would like to learn more, we encourage you to take one of the Machine Learning or
Computer Vision classes in the department, or check out this brief online-course.
At a high level, a CNN consists of multiple layers. Each layer takes a multi-dimensional array of numbers as input and produces
another multi-dimensional array of numbers as output (which then becomes the input of the next layer). When classifying images,
the input to the first layer is the input image (i.e., 32x32x3 numbers for 32×32 pixel images with 3 color channels), while the
output of the final layer is a set of likelihoods of the diferent categories (i.e., 1x1x10 numbers if there are 10 categories).
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High-level Overview of the CNN we use for this project (data dimensions not to scale).
Each layer has a set of weights associated with it — these weights are what the CNN “learns” when it is presented with training data.
Depending on the layer, the weights have diferent interpretations, but for the purpose of this project, it is sufcient to know that
each layer takes the input, performs some operation on it that is dependent on the weights, and produces an output. This step is
called the “forward” pass: we take an input and push it through the network, producing the desired result as an output. This is all
that needs to be done to use an already trained CNN to classify images.
Your Task:
In this project, we give you a pre-trained CNN that can classify 32×32 images into 10 categories (such as dog, cat, car or plane).
Using this CNN, we develop an application that takes a large set (i.e., 1000’s) of images as input and finds those that contain cats.
This CNN has been trained on the CIFAR-10 data set, which consists of 50,000 32×32 images showing 10 diferent categories. The
network consists of 11 layers, each performing a particular operation on a specific size of input, producing a specific size of output.
Throughout the project, you can assume this specific network with the provided weights.
Unfortunately, our initial implementation is very slow — your job is to make it faster!
Step 0: Obtaining the Files & Getting Started
Similarly to Project 1, we will be distributing the project files through Github. You can look back on the Step 0 for Project 1 for more
specific steps. However, make sure that you are using your newly created Project 4 repository, which should be in the form of
proj4-XX-YY.git – even if you have the same partner as in Project 1! The repository that contains the starter code is named
An abridged version of the commands is reproduced below:
cd ~ # Make sure you are outside of any existing repositories (eg. ~/work)
git clone [email protected]:cs61c-summer2015/proj4-XX-YY.git
cd proj4-XX-YY # Go inside the directory that was created
git remote add proj4-starter [email protected]:cs61c-summer2015/proj4-starter
git fetch proj4-starter
git merge proj4-starter/master -m “merge proj4 skeleton code”
Once you have obtained the files, you should first try out the application and make sure everything is working correctly. You can run
the application by executing the following in your project directory:
make run
This will launch a webserver using port 12345 to which you can connect using your web browser (we highly recommend Google
Chrome). If you are physically working on one of the hive machines, you can open a browser and navigate to the following link to
access the page:
Otherwise, if you use Linux or a Mac, you can run the following command on your own machine, which will allow you to connect to
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the hive machine and forward all trafc from one of your local ports to that machine (if you have a Windows machine, please use
these instructions instead — thanks Jefrey!).
ssh -L 12345:localhost:12345 [email protected]
Please make sure that the hive server that you execute the above line with is the same server as the one you are currently working
on. Otherwise, you will receive an error message.
If you are getting an error message that the port 12345 is already in use, another user is probably already running the web server
on the same machine. In this case, you can run it on a diferent port (e.g., 22222) by running
make run port=[port_num]
python [port_num]
instead of make run (e.g “make run port=7777”, python 7777). Whichever port you choose, make sure to replace any
occurence of 12345 in the instructions with this port.
After setting up port forwarding (and starting the web server on the hive machine), you should be able to navigate to
http://localhost:12345 on your local browser. You should now be seeing something similar to the following page:
You should play around with the app a little bit and see how it can be used to find all the images of cats out of a much larger
collection. Also note that the application is showing you the accuracy (i.e., how many pictures were correctly classified as cat/no cat)
and the performance of the classifier. The performance of the version we gave you is very poor: it only reaches about 60 Cat/s
(which will be our performance metric for this assignment, even though the correct term would be images classified per second).
We challenge you to speed this up by a factor of 12x, making the app achieve at least 3 KCat/s (=3000 Cat/s).
Step 1: Finding your way around the project
We will first go through the project’s code, in order to help you orient yourself. Note that this project is much more open-ended
than previous assignments you have encountered in this course: you can speed up the application whichever way you like, as long
as it still produces the correct results. Don’t let this intimidate you — we made sure that it is possible to reach the required speedup without exploiting all the diferent possible optimizations.
Code Overview
All relevant code for this project can be found in a single file: src/cnn.c. You may change this file in whichever way you like, as long
as it still performs the same computations as before, and does so correctly for all possible inputs. There are many diferent ways by
which you can achieve substantial speed-ups on this code, and we want to give you full freedom to experiment with any of them.
The source code is divided into multiple sections. Each of these sections roughly corresponds to a diferent data type. The first data
type is vol_t. It represents a three-dimensional array (or Volume) of numbers, which is used to hold the results between layers. In
the figure above, these correspond to V0, V1, etc.
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Next, we have a number of the diferent kinds of layers: conv, relu, pool, fc and softmax. You do not need to understand what these
diferent layers are doing, but each of them has:
A data structure holding a description of the layer’s parameters. Note that each layer has a fixed set of parameters that don’t
change during execution. They determine (for example) the size of its input and output volumes, and are set when the CNN is
defined. For example, the CNN we are using has 3 conv layers, each with slightly diferent parameters.
A *_forward function which performs the layer’s main operation. These functions first take the layer’s struct, as well as an
array of pointers to input and output volumes. They also accept start and end indices into this array. This allows each layer to
process a batch of inputs at once, which you may use for your optimizations. For example, you could have an array with
pointers to input volumes and set start = 5 and end = 9 to process inputs 5,6,7,8,9 at once and write the results into the
corresponding entries of the output array.
Two functions, make_* and *_load. The first generates a layer with a specific set of parameters, the second loads any weights
for this layer from the file system. You probably won’t need to ever edit any of these functions, unless you are making
changes to the layer structure itself (which is why we included them in cnn.c).
The final important data structure is network_t, which holds all the information describing the CNN. This includes all layers, and an
instance of each of the diferent intermediate Volumes. Note that these Volumes are not used for actually storing data (this is done
by the batches we will describe below). They are there to make the dimensions of the diferent volumes easily available in one place.
Finally, all intermediate data is represented as batches. You can think of them as the intermediate data associated with a set of
input images. While their type looks complicated (batch_t is shorthand for vol_t***), these are just two-dimensional arrays of
pointers to Volumes. The first dimension tells you which layer the Volume belongs to (i.e., V0, V1, etc. in the figure above) and the
second dimension tells you which input you are looking at. In the code we gave you, we only ever look at batches of size 1 (i.e., we
process one sample at a time), but you will later need to modify your program to consider larger batches, in order to parallelize
computation. Batches can be allocated using the make_batch function and are freed with free_batch.
Finally, the net_forward function takes a batch (as well as start/end indices) and applies the CNN to each entry from start to end by
calling the forward functions on each layer. This function is used in net_classify_cats to take a set of input images, put them each
into the V0 volume of a single-element batch, and then run the network on them, in order to classify them as cat or no cat. Be
careful about these functions: These functions are called from outside cnn.c and therefore should continue to work as before, even
though you will have to modify them as you optimize your implementation.
Running your Implementation
In addition to the application mode, we provide you with two other ways of running the CNN, which will be helpful during
1. Testing: As you modify the application, you need to make sure that the results at every level of the CNN remain the same (up
to a small delta, to tolerate floating point rounding errors). To help you check that none of the changes broke the program,
you can run:
make test
which will run your implementation against 20 images to ensure that all results (including the intermediate Volumes) remain
the same. We also run your program on a large data set and compare all the outputs, to catch bugs that were introduced when
parallelizing the code. This is not completely sufcient for testing (and you may still have subtle bugs, e.g., to do with
parallelism), but should give you a quick way to check for the most obvious errors. We have also provided you with an
additional test which you can just run with test-huge
2. Benchmarking: To measure the impact of your optimizations, you can run the CNN from the command line by running:
make benchmark
This will run your CNN on a set of input images and measure its performance. Note that your performance can vary, for
example as a result of other users on the same machine. When we grade your project, we will run it in isolation on its own
machine, so it should perform at least as well as when you tested it. If you want to just quickly run the program, we also
provide you with diferent sizes of benchmarks (through make benchmark-small, make-benchmark-large and make benchmarkhuge).
Where do I start?
We realize that the above information is not sufcient to fully understand every detail of the code. Fortunately, you won’t need to do
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so in order to make it run faster: by looking at the structure of the code, you should be able to see potential sources of parallelism
and other ways to optimize the code. Below, we will give you some first steps to get begin, and also provide you with a number of
hints to try out. From there, you should experiment with diferent techniques and see how well they work.
Step 2: Profiling & Amdahl’s Law
Whenever you start optimizing some given code, you first have to determine where it spends most of its time. For example,
speeding up a part of the program that only takes 5% of the overall runtime will at most get you 5% a speed-up and is probably not
worth your time.
In lecture, you heard about Amdahl’s law, which is a great way to estimate the expected performance impact of an optimization. As
we saw in class, to apply Amdahl’s law, we first have to find out what fraction of time is spent in the diferent parts of the program.
As the first part of your assignment, answer the following questions and put your responses into answers.txt in your project
1. Extend your cnn.c implementation to output the amount of time spent in each of the layers of the Convolutional Neural
Network. Run make benchmark and write down the time spent in each layer in answers.txt, both as absolute time in ms and
percentage of the total execution time. (Hint: we provide a function timestamp_us() in timestamp.c that may be useful).
2. Now, compute the percentage of time spent in each type of layer (e.g., conv or relu). What type of layer is taking up the
largest fraction of runtime? Which one is taking up the smallest fraction?
3. For each of the diferent types of layer, use Amdahl’s Law to compute the overall speed-up if were able to make that type of
layer 4x faster. Based on this computation, which layer should we focus our optimization eforts on?
(Don’t forget to submit your answers.txt with your implementation!)
Step 3: Unrolling and other optimizations
Now it is time to optimize the CNN implementation! Use your results from Step 2 to guide your eforts — there are only a few places
in the application that are actually worth optimizing.
You should first try to speed up the computation by trying to apply conventional code optimizations. While we won’t tell you all the
exact steps, here are some hints that should help you get started:
Sometimes you can replace a function by multiple specialized functions that do the same but are optimized for specific input
Are there any places in the program where a variable always has the same value, but it is loaded from memory every time?
Are there any places where you could do manual loop unrolling?
Can you classify multiple samples at once instead of classifying them one after the other?
Is there a better ordering of the diferent loops?
Once you have improved performance using these optimizations, you can start applying vectorization and parallelization to make
the program even faster. Note that you have considerable freedom to apply any of these optimizations, and there is more than one
correct solution. Try to experiment with diferent approaches and see which one gives you the best performance.
Step 4: SIMD Instructions
In your lab, you learned how to apply SIMD instructions to improve performance. The processors in the hive machines support the
Intel AVX extensions, which allow you to do SIMD operations on 256 bit values (not just 128 bit, as we have seen in the lab). You
should use these extensions to perform four operations in parallel (since all floating point numbers are doubles, which are 64 bit in
As a reminder, you can use the Intel Intrinsics Guide as a reference to look up the relevant instructions. You will have to use the
__m256d type to hold 4 doubles in a YMM register, and then use the _mm256_* intrinsics to operate on them.
As a guidance, these optimizations should be able to give you a 2x speedup with relative ease. Note, however, that you won’t need
to achieve quite this performance to get a good grade in this project; the next step will get you a substantially larger speed-up.
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Step 5: OpenMP
Finally you should use OpenMP to parallelize computation. Note that the easiest way to parallelize the classification of a large
number of images is to classify batches of them in parallel (since these batches are independent). Note that you will need to make
sure that none of the diferent threads overwrites each others’ data. Just adding a #pragma omp parallel for is not enough, and will
cause errors.
Note that the hive machines have 4 cores with two hyperthreads (HT) each. This means that you should expect a speed-up of 4-8x
(note that hyperthreads mean that two diferent programs execute on the same physical core at the same time; they will therefore
compete for processor resources, and as a result, you will not get the same performance as if you were running on two completely
separate cores).
Your OpenMP implementation should give you a speed-up of at least 4x.
Grading Rubric
This is an open-ended project: we want to give you the freedom to experiment with whichever optimizations you can come up with.
Your score will therefore be mostly determined by the performance of your implementation. We will take the KCat/s that your
application achieves, multiply them by 10 and use it as a base score between 0 and 30 (i.e., if your implementation achieves 2
KCat/s, you will get 20/30 points; but if your implementation achieves more than 3 KCat/s, you will still only get 30 points). In
addition, your answers to Step 2 are worth another 10 points. In summary, your overall grade (out of 40 points) will be calculated
Grade = min(30, (10*Performance in KCat/s)) + (grade on answers.txt out of 10)
Note: We don’t allow any form of pre-computation in this project. A guidance is that your application should perform every floating
point operation that the original program does. If we encounter cases that attempt to achieve high performance by pre-computing
the results, we consider this cheating and will give 0 points.
Of course, it is possible to do substantially better than 3 KCat/s? Do you have what it takes to break the 5 KCat/s barrier? Great,
because we are starting a competition: the teams who send us the fastest implementations will not only be remembered as the
winners of the CS61C Summer’15 Project 4 competition, but also receive a small amount of extra credit. We will announce the
results of the competition in lecture and post them on the course website!
Due to time constraints and misc. issues, the deadline for submission for the contest is ONE day BEFORE the project is due (Due
Sunday August 9th @ 11:59PM)! In order to be considered in the competition, read the section below on submission!
Please start early!!! Because the project is run on the hive machines and we have ~100 students, the performance of your
optimizations will greatly be afected when MANY students are actively using the same hive machine to test their implementations.
For this project, we will also launch an (optional) submission system for Project 4 that will allow you to submit our implementation,
run it in isolation on one of the hive machines, and immediately receive your score back. This will, hopefully, give you a piece of
mind about the results that your program is going to achieve, and should obviate many regrade requests.
However, before explaining how this process works, here are a few important things to note. Please read these carefully and not
adhering to these guidelines may result to a loss of EPA!
We reserve the following machines for grading: hive28, hive29, and hive30. Please try not to use any of these machines from
now on except during lab times! In addition, since other classes use hive machines, it would be best to submit either later in
the evening or early in the morning. Please note that anything running on these machines will afect other students’ grades.
Each run of benchmark takes up to a minute to complete. With 100+ students in the class, this means that running everyone’s
submissions will take 100 minutes. For this reason, we cannot allow students to repeatedly submit in order to fish for better
scores. We therefore enforce the rule that you are only allowed to submit every 30 minutes. We have a full log of all the
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grading runs and will deduct EPA of students that don’t adhere to these rules.
Using this system is OPTIONAL. You can simply submit your
to us without having it run on the grading system, and we will run it for you in isolation and compute your score — so please
don’t worry if you don’t get a chance to run on this system.
How does it work? In order to submit your program for grading, you will need to run the following command in your proj3 directory:
# Please only submit every 20 minutes! (every 10 minutes per team)
submit-proj4 [e-mail]
where [e-mail] is your address, e.g., “submit-proj4 [email protected]”. You will then need to enter your
account password. Please be careful that you don’t mistype the e-mail address, since this is where we will send you the results once
the grading is complete.
The script will tell you how many people are in the queue in front of you, which should give you an idea of how long it might take
until you receive results. Once your submission has been graded, you will receive a grading report via e-mail. Please copy the report
and store it in a file “grading.txt” in your project directory — you should include this file in your submission on the instructional
machines, and also commit it to GitHub.
When we grade your assignments, we will look whether you have submitted a grading.txt. If you have, we will use the performance
from that run for your grade; if you don’t include a grading.txt, we will grade your submission under the exact same conditions as
the automatic grading system; running it three times in a row and keeping the maximum performance.
Note that we will run make test-huge in any case to ensure that your submission gives the correct results; even if you have
submitted a grading.txt, an incorrect submission will still give you 0 points! Please also make sure that you haven’t made any
changes to anything but cnn.c; as in previous assignments, code that doesn’t compile will get you 0 points. One way to test this is
to use the automatic grading system. You can also check out proj4_starter again, replace the cnn.c file with your own, and check
that it passes make test-huge.
Note that our autograder does keep a log of all submissions and results so falsifying a “grading.txt” is considered cheating.
Make sure that your implementation is correct and passes all the provided tests! If not, you risk losing all 40 possible
There are two steps required to submit proj4. Failure to perform both steps will result in loss of credit:
1. First, you must submit using the standard unix submit program on the instructional servers. This assumes that you followed
the earlier instructions and did all of your work inside of your git repository. To submit, follow these instructions after
logging into your cs61c-XX class account:
cd ~/proj4-XX-YY # Or where your shared git repo is
submit proj4
Once you type submit proj4, follow the prompts generated by the submission system. It will tell you when your submission
has been successful and you can confirm this by looking at the output of glookup -t.
If you are participating in the competition, you should ALSO submit using the following submit command:
submit proj4-contest
Unlike your regular proj4 submission, your competition code does NOT have to be shared/updated on your GitHub repository.
Also remember, the deadline for the contest is Sunday August 9th @ 11:59pm
2. Additionally, you must submit proj4 to your shared GitHub repository:
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cd ~/proj4-XX-YY # Or where your shared git repo is
git add -u
git commit -m “project 4 submission”
git tag “proj4-sub” # The tag MUST be “proj4-sub”. Failure to do so will result in loss of credit.
git push origin proj4-sub # This tells git to push the commit tagged proj4-sub
If you need to re-submit, you can follow the same set of steps that you would if you were submitting for the first time, but you will
need to use the -f flag to tag and push to GitHub:
# Do everything as above until you get to tagging
git tag -f “proj4-sub”
git push -f origin proj4-sub
Note that in general, force pushes should be used with caution. They will overwrite your remote repository with information from
your local copy. As long as you have not damaged your local copy in any way, this will be fine.

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