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COMP2521 20T1 – Week 02 Lab Exercise

COMP2521 20T1 Data Structures and Algorithms
Week 02 Lab Exercise
MyEd and DLLs
Objectives
to illustrate le manipulation
to implement a doubly-linked list ADT
to design comprehensive test-cases
to build a simple line-based text editor
Admin
5=outstanding, 4=very good, 3=adequate, 2=sub-standard, 1=hopeless
in the Week 02 Lab or in the Week 03 Lab
give cs2521 lab02 DLList.c testList.c or via WebCMS
submit by Tue 3 Mar 2020, 20:00:00
Aims
This lab aims to re-examine an idea that we have looked at a few times in lectures (without being
explicit about it): command interpreters. More importantly, it aims to give you practice manipulating a
useful data type: doubly-linked lists. Finally, it aims to demonstrate how les are manipulated in Linux.
These ideas are tied together in a simple text editor, a program in the style of the classic Unix text
editor ed(1), an editor which roamed the earth contemporaneously with the dinosaurs.
Background
A text editor deals with a le of text, reads it, allows the user to modify it, and then writes it back. This
implies that the editor has an internal representation that it deals with in between the reading and the
writing. For this example, we consider that the internal representation is a sequence of lines,
represented by a doubly-linked list of strings. Each node in the list represents one line in the le being
edited.
Since a common operation is to “move around” the le, looking for lines to change, a doubly-linked list
with a notion of a current node provides a convenient way to do this. The editor itself is implemented
as a loop which: prints a prompt
*
, reads a command, carries out the command (possibly changing the
state of the list), and then repeats. Many of the programs that we build for exploring data structures
during this course will have a similar structure.
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*: That it prints a prompt is an improvement on the real ed(1) editor, which doesn’t (by default). Not prompting the user may be
minimalist, but isn’t great interface design.
Doubly-linked Lists
Doubly-linked lists are a variation on “standard” linked lists where each node has a pointer to the
previous node as well as a pointer to the next node. The following diagram shows the dierences:
As shown in the diagram, our version of doubly-linked lists also has a notion of a “current” node, and
current can move backwards and forwards along the list. Our doubly-linked list does insertions either
immediately before or immediately after the current node. Deletion always causes the current node to
be removed from the list.
In this lab, we’ll use a doubly-linked list ADT called DLList whose interface is given in the le
/web/cs2521/20T1/labs/week02/code/DLList.h
The representation of DLList is a doubly-linked list of DLListNodes, accessed via a record containing
the following four elds:
nitems: a count of the number of nodes/items in the list
first: a pointer to the rst node in the list
last: a pointer to the last node in the list
curr: a pointer to the “current” node in the list
Several important conditions must hold at all times during the lifetime of a DLList. Technically, these
conditions are called invariants, and are checked for in the function validDLList().
Whenever the list is non-empty, it must have a dened current node. It is not possible for the
current node pointer to be NULL if there is at least one node in the list.
The counter nitems must always contain a value which is the same as the number of nodes in the
list.
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The book-keeping operations (e.g. newDLList(), getDLList(), etc.) are relatively straightforward, so
we’ll describe only the operations relevant for this lab in detail.
char *DLListCurrent(DLList L)
Return a pointer to the string value for the current node. It is an error to call this function if the
list contains no nodes.
bool DLListMove(DLList L, int n)
Move the current pointer either backwards or forwards n positions from the current position.
Move forwards in n is positive, and move backwards if n is negative. If current reaches either end
of the list before it has moved n positions, it stops at the end node. If the movement stops with
current at either the rst or last node, return a value of 1; otherwise, return a value of 0.
bool DLListMoveTo(DLList L, int n)
Set the current pointer to point to the n
th node in the list, where nodes are indexed starting from
1. If n is smaller than 1, the current node will be set to the rst node. If n is larger than the
number of nodes in the list, the current node will be set to the last node. The return value has the
same behaviour as the return value of DLListMove().
void DLListBefore(List, char *)
Insert a new node in the list immediately before the current node. The new node becomes the
current node. If the node is inserted before the rst node, it also becomes the new rst node.
void DLListAfter(List, char *)
Insert a new node in the list immediately after the current node. The new node becomes the
current node. If the node is inserted after the last node, it also becomes the new last node.
void DLListDelete(List)
Remove the current node from the list (and free its memory, including the memory used to hold
the string). The current node becomes the node immediately following the node that was
removed. If the removed node is the last node (i.e. the node at the end of the list), then the
current node is set to the new last node. If the node removed was the only node in the list, then
current becomes NULL. If DLListDelete() is called with an empty list, it should simply return
without making any changes to the list.
Note that the supplied DLList ADT implements a doubly-linked list of strings. The strings are created
outside the list nodes, as in the diagram below:
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The storage used by the strings needs to be managed separately to the storage used by the list nodes,
although still as part of the implementation of the DLList ADT.
myed: a Text Editor
Text editors are programs that allow you to manipulate text les interactively; they provide a user
interface where you can load a le, make changes to it, and then save an updated version of the le.
Text editors like myed are seriously retro and hark back to the 60’s, when screen-based editors like vi
and emacs didn’t exist, and graphical editors like gedit weren’t even a gleam in some inventor’s eye
(except maybe Doug Engelbart).
The myed program provides an extremely simple command-line interface where you enter one-letter
commands to manipulate the loaded le. Despite its primitive interface, myed can actually make
changes to text les. Here’s an example session with the editor (using the normal notational
conventions: what the system prints is in this font, what you type is in this font, comments are in
small grey font).
$ ./myed text // start the editor, loading a file called “text”
% // show all of the lines in the file
this is // the current line is the first line
a small file
containing a few lines
of boring text
. // show the current line
this is
i // insert a line before the first line
new first line // you type the new line here
% // show all of the lines again, so you can see the changes
new first line // note that the new line is now the current line
this is
a small file
containing a few lines
of boring text
n // move to the next line
this is
n // move to the next line
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Makefile
DLList.h
DLList.c
testList.c
myed.c
a small file
n // move to the next line
containing a few lines
-2 // move back two lines
this is
w // save a copy of the modified file
q // quit the editor
$ ls // list the files in the current directory
… text text.new … // should see the original file and the new version
$ cat text.new // look at the contents of the new text file
new first line
this is
a small file
containing a few lines
of boring text
$
The best way to get a feeling for how the editor works is to play with it. There’s a working version in the
class directory, which you can execute on the CSE lab machines via the command:
$ /web/cs2521/20T1/labs/week02/myed filename
Choose any old text le you like as the lename. Once you have an editor prompt, the command ? will
tell you what other commands are available.
If you play with the supplied myed, I can guarantee that you will run the % command a lot. Editing is
better when you get immediate feedback on the changes you’ve made, which led to the development of
screen-based editors like vi and emacs soon after the novelty of editing in the ed(1) style wore o (and
once graphical displays were available). If you’re keen to experience the original ed(1), it’s still available
under Linux.
Setting Up
Set up a directory for this lab under your cs2521/labs directory, change into that directory, and run the
following command:
$ unzip /web/cs2521/20T1/labs/week02/lab.zip
If you’re working at home, download lab.zip, unzip it there, and then work on your local machine.
If you’ve done the above correctly, you should now nd the following les in the directory:
a set of dependencies used to control compilation
interface denition for the List ADT
(partial) implementation for the List ADT
main program for testing the List ADT
main program for a simple line-based text editor
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text a simple text le that you can use to test myed
Once you’ve got these les, the rst thing to do is to run the command
$ make
This will produce messages about compiling, and will put two executable les in your directory (along
with some .o les).
testList
This is the executable for the testList.c program. As supplied, it runs a number of simple tests
on the DLList datatype. You can use it by running ./testList, typing in a few lines of text and
then using control-D to end the input; the program should display all of the lines you typed and
not produce any assert errors. You will need to add more extensive tests as part of this Lab.
myed
This is the executable for the myed.c program, which implements a very simple line-based text
editor. It takes as argument a le name, reads this le into a doubly-linked list of lines, and then
supports various actions on the lines. See the myed.c le for details on what commands are
available, or type the ? command inside the editor to get help.
Since myed is a text editor, it needs to be invoked by giving it a le to edit. The lab.zip archive
contains a small text le (called text) that you can use with the editor. Invoke the editor using a
command like:
$ ./myed text
Task 1
The myed program is complete, but doesn’t work because some of the functions in DLList.c are not
complete. You should complete these functions so that the behaviour of your myed program is the
same as the behaviour of the sample solution:
$ /web/cs2521/20T1/labs/week02/myed text
You can execute the sample solution on the CSE workstations (only), by typing the full path name
exactly as above. It would be a good idea to play with the sample solution at least briey to get an idea
of how it is supposed to work.
Note that since the two myed programs read from stdin and write to stdout, one automatic way of
testing them would be to devise a set of editing scripts (les containing sequences of myed commands),
and then apply each script with both your myed and the sample myed and using diff to ensure that they
both produce the same output, e.g.
$ ./myed text < FileContainingEditCommands out1
$ /web/cs2521/20T1/labs/week02/myed text < FileContainingEditCommands out2
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$ diff out1 out2
In order to establish the correctness of your myed, you should develop a number of editing scripts, each
one being more devious than the previous in attempting to crash your editor (and the sample one, if
you can … if you do work out how to crash the sample editor, let me know, and I’ll x it).
Task 2
Implementing the DLList functions to make myed work serves two purposes: (a) getting a complete
editor, (b) myed providing a simple test harness for the DLList ADT. However, the way that myed
exercises the ADT is by no means complete, and more testing is needed.
The testList.c program provides a skeleton in which to build a more serious testing framework. At
present, it is minimal; it simply uses the getDLList() function to read some strings from standard
input into a List, displays the List and then does a sanity check on the representation. You should
expand testList.c to provide a more complete set of tests to exercise the DLList functions.
Note that writing a detailed test suite for all functions in the ADT is quite time consuming. You should at
least write comprehensive test cases for the three functions that you implemented. This means that
you should have a test for each of the possible states in which each function might be invoked (e.g.
empty list, list with one node, etc.). At the least, each test should:
show the state of the list before the operation (including curr and nitems)
indicate what operation is about to be performed
invoke the operation
display the state of the list after the operation
run the validDLList() check on the list
You can simply use visual inspection of the output to check whether the operations have worked
correctly, and, of course, check with validDLList() after each operation. It is not necessary to write
automatic checks of the precise state, since this would require writing multiple functions almost as
complex as validDLList(). If you wish to modify putDLList() to give a better display of the DLList
state (e.g. use short lines and display all of them on a single output line), that would be useful (but not
essential).
Submission
You need to submit two les: DLList.c and testList.c. Submit these either via the give command in
a terminal window or from WebCMS, and then show your tutor, who’ll give you feedback on your
coding style, your test quality, and award a mark.
Have fun, jas
COMP2521 20T1: Data Structures and Algorithms is brought to you by
the School of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of New South Wales, Sydney.
For all enquiries, please email the class account at [email protected]
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